文章摘要
陈健,郑雅旭,孔德川,吴寰宇,袁政安,吴凡.上海市实施急性呼吸道感染综合监测应对新发呼吸道传染病的实践与思考[J].中华流行病学杂志,,():
上海市实施急性呼吸道感染综合监测应对新发呼吸道传染病的实践与思考
Practice and thinking of acute respiratory infection surveillance for the response of emerging respiratory diseases in Shanghai
收稿日期:2020-04-21  出版日期:2020-06-16
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200421-00616
中文关键词: 新发传染病;流感样病例;严重急性呼吸道感染;新型冠状病毒肺炎;综合监测
英文关键词: Emerging infectious diseases;Influenza-like illness;Severe acute respiratory infection;COVID-19;Comprehensive surveillance
基金项目:上海市新型冠状病毒感染的肺炎流行病学研究(20411950100)
作者单位E-mail
陈健 上海市疾病预防控制中心传染病防治所 200336  
郑雅旭 上海市疾病预防控制中心传染病防治所 200336  
孔德川 上海市疾病预防控制中心传染病防治所 200336  
吴寰宇 上海市疾病预防控制中心传染病防治所 200336  
袁政安 上海市疾病预防控制中心 200336 yuanzhengan@scdc.sh.cn 
吴凡 上海市预防医学研究院 200336
复旦大学公共卫生学院, 上海 200032 
wufan@shmu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      上海市CDC试点实施了成年人急性呼吸道感染综合监测,对流感样病例(ILI)和严重急性呼吸道感染(SARI)开展主动监测和多种呼吸道病原体的检测鉴定。在2019年172例ILI病例中以流感病毒感染为主,其中新甲型H1N1型、H3N2亚型和B/V亚型流感病毒的检出阳性率分别为30.81%、14.53%和30.55%,新甲型H1N1型的流行高峰为第一季度。肠道病毒/人鼻病毒总检出阳性率为6.40%,高峰在第三季度。腺病毒总检出阳性率为4.65%,高峰在第二季度。人类冠状病毒OC43型2份、HKU1型和NL63型各1份、229E型未检出;金黄色葡萄球菌检出率为17.44%,肺炎克雷伯菌检出率为9.88%;1 447例SARI病例也以流感病毒感染为主,其中新甲型H1N1型、H3N2和B/V亚型流感病毒的检出率分别为5.46%、1.73%和0.30%,新甲型H1N1型流感流行高峰也为第一季度,检出阳性率为17.50%。肠道病毒/人鼻病毒总检出阳性率为2.97%,高峰在第一季度。肺炎支原体检出阳性率为3.25%,军团菌检出阳性率为1.04%。检出人类冠状病毒229E型5份、OC43型10份、HKU1型7份、NL63型6份;细菌培养检出金黄色葡萄球菌8株,铜绿假单胞菌4株,肺炎克雷伯菌3株。通过开展主动监测,不仅发现了个别少见的新发传染病如人感染H7N9禽流感病例,同时也初步掌握了上海市急性呼吸道感染病例的流行病学特征、病原谱特征及其季节性变化趋势。近年来,通过逐步增加监测哨点医院,不断改进监测方法,尤其是在应对新型冠状病毒肺炎过程中在全市推广了基于医院HIS系统的监测信息上报系统,初步建立了覆盖全市的急性呼吸道感染综合监测网络,为开展新发呼吸道传染病主动监测预警打下了基础。
英文摘要:
      Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention has implemented an active comprehensive surveillance project of acute respiratory infections in adults in Shanghai, including influenza like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). By testing and identifying a variety of respiratory pathogens, it was found that influenza viruses were the main pathogens in 172 ILI cases in 2019. The positive rates of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus and influenza B virus Victoria lineage were 30.81%, 14.53% and 30.55%, respectively. The positive detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus peaked in the first quarter. The positive rate of enterovirus/human rhinovirus was 6.40%, with a positive detection peak in the third quarter, while the positive rate of adenovirus was 4.65% with a positive detection peak in the second quarter of the year. Two human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 positive samples, 1 HCoV-HKU1 positive sample and 1 HCoV-NL63 positive sample were detected, respectively, and no HCoV-229E positive sample was detected. The detection rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 17.44%, and the detection rate of Klebsiella pneumoniae was 9.88%. Influenza viruses were also the main pathogens in 1 447 SARI cases. The positive rates of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus and influenza B virus Victoria lineage were 5.46%, 1.73% and 0.30%, respectively. The positive detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (17.50%) peaked in the first quarter. The total positive detection rate of enterovirus/human rhinovirus was 2.97%, the positive detection peaked in the first quarter. The positive rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 3.25% and the positive rate of Legionella was 1.04%. 5 HCoV-229E positive samples, 10 HCoV-OC43 positive samples, 7 HCoV-HKU1 positive samples and 6 HCoV-NL63 positive samples were detected. Eight strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 3 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected after cultures. By implementing the active surveillance, we not only detected a case of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in time, but also preliminary understood the pathogenic spectrum characteristics and seasonality of ILI and SARI in Shanghai. In recent years, the surveillance methods have been continuously improved and the number of sentinel hospitals has increased gradually. In particular, for the response to COVID-19, the Surveillance Information Reporting System of Acute Respiratory Infection based on HIS system has been promoted to cover the whole city, which might lay a foundation for the active surveillance and early warning of emerging infectious diseases in the future.
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