文章摘要
吴宜群,黄清霄,周晓容,胡刚,王祖兵,李洪蒙,鲍仁良,闫惠芳,李春林,吴立斌,何凤生.乡镇土法蓄电池回收对环境及儿童健康的影响[J].中华流行病学杂志,2002,23(3):167-171
乡镇土法蓄电池回收对环境及儿童健康的影响
Study on the effects of lead from small industry of battery recycling on environment and children's health
收稿日期:2001-12-24  出版日期:2014-09-17
DOI:
中文关键词: 铅中毒  智商  蓄电池回收  血铅
英文关键词: Lead poisoning  Intellig ence  Battery recycling  Blood lead level
基金项目:国家“九五” 科技攻关项目(96-920-26-03)
作者单位
吴宜群 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
黄清霄 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
周晓容 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
胡刚 安徽职业病防治研究所劳动卫生科 
王祖兵 安徽职业病防治研究所劳动卫生科 
李洪蒙 界首市卫生防疫站劳动卫生科 
鲍仁良 阜阳市卫生防疫站劳动卫生科 
闫惠芳 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
李春林 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
吴立斌 安徽职业病防治研究所劳动卫生科 
何凤生 中国疾病预防控制中心职业卫生与中毒控制所 北京 100050 
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中文摘要:
      目的 对田营镇的儿童生活环境监测和生物监测, 探讨乡镇环境铅污染对当地儿童健康的影响. 方法 对当地儿童生活环境中铅含量监测的同时, 在5所小学959名5~12岁的学生以及清洁对照区的207名学生中开展了血铅、血锌原卟啉和牙齿铅的测定并进行了问卷调查, 并分别对污染区和对照区的儿童进行了WISCR儿童智能发育及生长发育指标的检查测试. 结果 污染区环境污染相当严重, 大气中铅的日平均浓度为0. 0128mg/m3, 超过国家卫生标准8倍, 超标率为85%. 土壤铅平均含量1. 05%, 为国家卫生标准的10倍. 主要农作物小麦铅平均含量为9. 63mg/kg高出国家卫生标准24倍. 污染区儿童血铅和锌原卟啉的平均浓度分别为496μg/L和9. 41μg/gHb, 明显高于对照组儿童. 污染区儿童韦氏智力测验结果明显低于对照组儿童, 血铅水平与儿童语言智商、操作智商和总智商存在负相关关系. 儿童体格生长也受到影响. 结论 土法废旧蓄电池回收业严重污染了当地儿童的生长环境, 对儿童的生长发育造成了严重的威胁.
英文摘要:
      Objective In order to minimize lead pollution and to protect the identified individuals with high blood lead level from lead contamination, an epidemiological study was carried on children living around the village and township owned lead industries in Tianying town. Methods Environmental monitoring: lead levels in air, soil, drinking water and crops were measured. Biological monitoring: 959 children aged 5 12 years were selected from villages where the lead smelters located near the residential areas and the battery disassembling was done in some families. The control children (207 pupils) were from other villages without lead exposure. Blood lead, ZnPP and teeth lead were determined. Height, weight and head circle of children and IQ scores were measured. Results The environment was seriously polluted. The average lead concentrations in air and soils were 8. 5 times and 10 times of the MACs (national health standard) respectively. Eighty five per cent the air samples with lead concentrations higher than the national health standard. Local crops and wheat at farmers' home were also contaminated by lead dust, with. Lead content being 24 times higher than the standard. The mean blood lead and ZnPP levels of children lived in the polluted areas were 496 μg/L and 9. 41 μg/g Hb respectively. The lead exposure caused adverse effects on children's IQ and physical development. Conclusion It is necessary to remove and reduce currently active sources of lead pollution in the community and to increase public awareness of potential health effects of lead exposure.
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