文章摘要
杨功焕,马杰民,刘娜,周灵妮.中国人群2002年吸烟和被动吸烟的现状调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2005,26(2):77-83
中国人群2002年吸烟和被动吸烟的现状调查
Smoking and passive smoking in Chinese, 2002
收稿日期:2004-11-12  出版日期:2014-09-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 吸烟;被动吸烟;烟草控制;戒烟
英文关键词: Smoking;Passive smoking;Tobacco use control;Quit
基金项目:科技部专项课题基金资助项目(2001DEB30077)
作者单位
杨功焕 100005 北京,中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学基础医学研究所 
马杰民 100005 北京,中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学基础医学研究所 
刘娜 100005 北京,中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学基础医学研究所 
周灵妮 100005 北京,中国医学科学院中国协和医科大学基础医学研究所 
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中文摘要:
      目的 描述 2002年中国人群吸烟、戒烟和被动吸烟的流行水平及在不同教育水平、职业和地区的分布特点,判断烟草流行的变化趋势。方法 在 14 5个疾病监测点中通过多阶段分层随机抽样,使用调查表入户调查,完成调查 16 4 0 7人,其中有 16 0 5 6人合格记录用于分析。采用总吸烟率、现在吸烟率、吸烟者日平均吸烟量、吸烟花费、戒烟率等指标,根据 2002年普查人口进行加权计算。结果 男性吸烟率为 6 6 .0 %,女性吸烟率为 3.0 8%,与 1996年结果比较,人群吸烟率下降 1.8%,15~ 2 4岁人群吸烟率上升,15岁以上吸烟者达到 3.5亿人,较 1996年增加 30 0 0万人。男性吸烟者水平大致相等,女性吸烟的地区差别更明显,东北、华北等地女性吸烟率依然很高。戒烟率增加,从 1996年的 9.4 2 %上升到现在的 11.5 %,意味着增加了 10 0 0万戒烟者,但不打算戒烟者依然占了绝大多数,达到 74 %。人均吸烟量基本不变,为 14 .8支 日,吸烟者平均每日花费 2 .73元,但不同人群差异很大,最高和最低者相差 15倍。被动吸烟暴露并没有大的改善,1996年和 2002年两次调查结果几乎相等,人群中被动吸烟暴露水平分别为 5 3%和 5 2 %。人们对烟草危害健康的知识增加,但西部地区人们的知识贫乏。
英文摘要:
      Objective To describe the prevalence of smoking, quitting smoke, and passive smokingin different populations by education status,occupation and geographic distribution. Methods Surveillanceon risk behaviors in 145 disease surveillance points (DSP) was carried out in 2002 by multi-steps randomsampling through questionnaires. 16 407 records had been completed with 16 056 used for analysis.Indicators as smoking, current smoking, average cigarettes smoked and the cost per day, etc., were calculatedby weight on age proportions from the 2000 census. Results Ever-smoking rates in males and femalesaged 15 and over were 66.0 % and 3 . 1 %,respectively with ever-smoking rate dropped 1. 8 % in wholepopulation,but increased in people aged 15-24. The number of total smokers was about 350 million, 30million more than that in 1996. There were no obvious geographic differences seen among male, but bigdifference was seen in female smokers. Higher smoking rates were seen in the northeast and northern partsof the country. Rate of quitting smoking was increasing > from 9.42 % in 1996 to 11.5%in 2002, referringto an increase of 10 million quitters. However,the rate of no intention to quit among smokers was still veryhigh-74 %.The average cigarettes consumption per person-day was the same as that in 1996-14.8cigarettes/day,which cost 2.73 RBM/day. The cost was vaiious in different groups of population with a 15times difference. The level of exposure for passive smokers was not improved. The prevalence of passivesmoking in nonsmokers were 53 % in 1996 and 52 % in 2002 . Knowledge on smoking and health conditionin population had been greatly improved, but still poor in the western areas. 60 % of the people claimed insupporting banning of smoking in public places, 45 % supporting the banning of all cigarettes ads, but bigdifference was seen in different geographic areas. Conclusion The prevalence of smoking in Chinese maleshad reached its peak,leveling but had not yet obvious dropped. Communication on the knowledge of harmin smoking remained weak since people did not understand or support the strategies on tobacco control,especially in the western areas. Data indicated that the prevalence of tobacco use would not decrease over inshort period and the disease burden caused by tobacco use would still be heavy in the next 30-50 years. Thegovernment and public health authorities should develop effective tobacco control in no time to decreasedisease burden caused by smoking and passive smoking.
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