文章摘要
刘慧,陈宗遒,肖新才,陆剑云,狄飚,李魁彪,汪慧,罗雷,杨智聪.广州地区活禽市场休市措施对控制禽流感病毒污染效果的评价[J].中华流行病学杂志,2014,35(7):832-836
广州地区活禽市场休市措施对控制禽流感病毒污染效果的评价
Effects of resting days on live poultry markets in controlling the avian influenza pollution
收稿日期:2014-03-23  出版日期:2014-09-01
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2014.07.017
中文关键词: 禽流感  活禽市场  休市  监测
英文关键词: Avian influenza  Live poultry market  Rest days  Surveillance
基金项目:国家科技重大专项(2012ZX100004213-005)
作者单位E-mail
刘慧 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
陈宗遒 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
肖新才 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
陆剑云 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
狄飚 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440 biotin2001@163.com 
李魁彪 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
汪慧 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
罗雷 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
杨智聪 广州市疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制科, 510440  
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中文摘要:
      目的 分析广州地区5 个活禽市场休市前后9 轮外环境监测结果, 评估休市措施对活禽市场禽流感病毒污染控制的成效及影响。方法 2014 年1 月对5 个第1 轮环境监测检出H7N9 禽流感病毒核酸的活禽市场所有存栏活禽采取扑杀和无害化处理、全面清洗消毒和3 d 休市的应急措施, 其后开展第2 轮监测, 复市1 周内再进行第3~9 轮监测。采用RT-PCR检测环境标本中A型流感病毒核酸, 阳性标本进一步检测H5、H7、H9 病毒亚型。结果 共采集外环境标本654 份。第1 轮监测中A型流感病毒活禽销售摊点阳性率为94.44%, H5/H7/H9 病毒亚型阳性率为61.11%, 处置消毒后阳性率下降至0, 复市后阳性率回升, A型流感病毒阳性率由第3 轮的50.00%升至第9 轮的72.22%, 但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05), H5/H7/H9 病毒亚型阳性率由第3 轮的0 升至第9 轮的44.44%, 差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。首轮监测中A 型流感病毒标本阳性率为28.89%, H5/H7/H9 病毒亚型标本阳性率为17.78%, 处置消毒后标本阳性率降为0, 复市后阳性率回升, 标本A型流感病毒阳性率由第3 轮的19.67%升至第9 轮的27.54%, 但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05), H5/H7/H9 病毒亚型标本阳性率由第3 轮的0 升至第9 轮的8.70%, 差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。活禽宰杀工具标本A型流感病毒阳性率最高(22.4%, 35/156)。复市后1 周内, 后期污水和饮水A型流感病毒阳性率(25.9%, 12.4%)均高于初期(8.3%, 8.6%), 但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。活禽过夜存栏的销售摊点A型流感病毒阳性率(91.7%)高于不存栏过夜者(33.3%), 同时售卖多种禽类的摊点A型流感病毒阳性率(85.7%)高于非售卖多种禽类摊点(25.0%), 差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 市场内活禽宰杀对禽流感病毒污染扩散的风险大, 污水、饮水存在禽流感病毒污染蓄积效应, 活禽存栏过夜和多种类禽鸟混养是销售摊点存留禽流感病毒的危险因素。对活禽市场采取清洁消毒等休市措施可清除禽流感病毒的污染, 但复市后即反弹, 对污染控制的持续效果并不明显。
英文摘要:
      Objective To analyze the results of nine-round environmental specimen surveillance programs in five live poultry markets pre- , during and post the‘closing days’and to evaluate the effects of‘closing days’on live poultry markets regarding the control against avian influenza pollution. Methods In January 2014, control measures including culling poultries, completely cleaning and disinfecting and a‘three-day-closing’measure were conducted in five live poultry markets which were found positive for H7N9 nucleic acid in the 1st round environmental specimen surveillance program. Second surveillance program was conducted after a thorough disinfection campaign was launched. Several times surveillance were conducted in one week, after the markets were reopened. RT-PCR was used to test the nucleic acid of HA, H5, H7 and H9 viruses. Results 654 specimens from the environment were collected and tested. During the first round surveillance program, positive rates for influenza A and H5/H7/H9 nucleic acid of poultry stalls appeared to be 94.44% and 61.11% respectively. The positive rates of poultry stalls reduced to 0 after the disinfection campaign but increased again after the markets reopened. The positive rate for influenza A of poultry stalls slightly increased from 50.00% in the third surveillance to 72.22% in the ninth surveillance(P>0.05). The positive rate for H5/H7/H9 of poultry stalls showed a significantly increasing trend, from 0 in the third surveillance to 44.44% in the ninth surveillance(P<0.01). The positive rates for influenza A and H5/H7/H9 nucleic acid of specimens were 28.89% and 17.78% respectively. The positive rate of specimens reduced to 0 after disinfection while increased again after reopening of the markets. The positive rate for influenza A of specimens slightly increased from 19.67% in the third surveillance to 27.54% in the ninth surveillance programs(P>0.05). The positive rate for H5/H7/H9 of specimen showed a significant increasing trend, from 0 in the third surveillance to 8.70% in the ninth-round surveillance programs(P<0.01). The positive rate for influenza A was the highest for slaughter- related specimens of 22.4%(35/156). The positive rates for influenza A from sewage and drinking water being collected on the later stage after the markets reopened(25.9% , 12.4%)were higher than those on the early stage(8.3% , 8.6%)(P>0.05). The positive rate for influenza A of poultry stalls with overnight poultry storage(91.7%)was significant higher than that of poultry stalls without the overnight storage(33.3%). The positive rate for influenza A of poultry stalls in which simultaneously selling different kinds of poultry(85.7%)was significant higher than that of poultry stalls in which selling only one kind of poultry at one time(25.0%)(P<0.05). Conclusion Slaughters in live poultry markets posed a large risk of pollution diffusion. Sewage and drinking water showed an accumulation effect for avian influenza virus. Overnight poultry storage and selling different kinds of poultry at one time at the poultry stalls seemed the risk factors for avian influenza virus transmission. Complete cleaning, disinfecting and several‘closing days’for live poultry markets seemed effective in eliminating avian influenza virus. Once the markets were reopened, they seemed to be soon polluted again.
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