文章摘要
魏柏青,熊浩明,杨晓艳,杨永海,祁美英,靳娟,辛有全,李翔,杨汉青,韩秀敏,代瑞霞.青海高原藏系绵羊鼠疫流行病学和病原学特征分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2015,36(3):271-274
青海高原藏系绵羊鼠疫流行病学和病原学特征分析
The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau
投稿时间:2014-09-19  
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2015.03.017
中文关键词: 鼠疫;藏系绵羊;生态流行病学;地理信息系统
英文关键词: Plague;Tibetan sheep;Ecological epidemiology;Geographic information system
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(81260438)
作者单位E-mail
魏柏青 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
熊浩明 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
杨晓艳 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
杨永海 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
祁美英 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
靳娟 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
辛有全 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
李翔 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
杨汉青 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
韩秀敏 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科  
代瑞霞 811602 西宁, 青海省地方病预防控制所鼠疫预防控制科 drx200907@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      目的 分析青海高原藏系绵羊鼠疫流行病学和病原学特征。方法 汇总1975-2009年青海省藏系绵羊鼠疫背景资料,分析其地区、时间和人间分布及感染途径和传播的生态学因素,并对藏系绵羊鼠疫分离的14株菌进行生化试验、毒力测定、毒力因子鉴定、质粒分析、差异片段(DFR)分型等研究。结果 1975-2009年从青海省藏系绵羊体内分离的鼠疫菌共14株。由藏系绵羊作为传染源引起人间鼠疫10起,鼠疫病例25例,死亡13例。首发病例均有剥食鼠疫病死藏羊史,其次为接触鼠疫病例而感染;以腺鼠疫为首发病例,由腺鼠疫继发为肺鼠疫、败血型鼠疫病例多且病死率高。藏系绵羊动物鼠疫及人间鼠疫几乎均发生于甘南生态区,与其独特的生态地理景观密切相关。藏羊动物鼠疫与藏羊引发的人间鼠疫几乎一致,其中11月(旱獭入蛰后)从藏羊体内分离的鼠疫菌株数及藏羊作为传染源引发的人间鼠疫病例数最多,构成了青海高原藏羊鼠疫流行时间明显滞后于旱獭鼠疫的特点。分离的14株鼠疫菌均为青藏高原型,其毒力因子及毒力检测均显示为强毒菌。鼠疫菌基因型DFR分析显示,玉树、治多县分离的菌株均为5型,囊谦县分离的2株菌分别为5型和7型,德令哈市分离的菌株为8型。结论 藏系绵羊可感染鼠疫并作为传染源引发人间鼠疫,分离的菌株均具备青藏高原鼠疫病原体特性,并具有青海鼠疫流行演变新特点。
英文摘要:
      Objective To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. Methods The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized,the regional,time and interpersonal distribution,infection routes,ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze;followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test,toxicity test,virulence factors identification,plasmid analysis,and DFR genotype. Results From 1975 to 2009,14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep,as the infection source,had caused 10 cases of human plague,25 plague patients,and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague;followed by cases due to contact of plague patients,while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province,which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep,especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype,with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping,the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5,the two strain isolated from Nangqian county were genomovar 5 and genomovar 7,while those isolated Delingha region were genomovar 8. Conclusion Tibetan sheep were vulnerable to plague infection,hence causing human plague as the infectious source. The Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep plague carried pathogen characteristics of Qinghai-Tibet plateau plague,developing many new characteristics of such plague.
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