文章摘要
石文惠,翟屹,李伟荣,沈冲,施小明.中国8省(自治区、直辖市)儿童上学日与周末睡眠时间差异分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2015,36(6):552-555
中国8省(自治区、直辖市)儿童上学日与周末睡眠时间差异分析
Difference on sleeping between school-days and weekends in elementary school children,data from 8 provinces in China
收稿日期:2014-12-07  出版日期:2015-06-09
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2015.06.003
中文关键词: 睡眠;上学日;周末;儿童
英文关键词: Sleep;School-days;Weekend;Children
基金项目:中国疾病预防控制中心青年科研基金(2010A205)
作者单位E-mail
石文惠 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢病社区处  
翟屹 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢病社区处 zhaiiahz@163.com 
李伟荣 北京友谊医院统计室  
沈冲 南京医科大学公共卫生学院  
施小明 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢病社区处  
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解我国儿童上学日与周末睡眠时间差异.方法 2010年9-11月采用分层随机整群抽样方法,根据地理特征、社会经济发展水平等因素,在8省(自治区、直辖市)抽取20 603名6~12岁儿童作为研究对象,调查其上学日与周末的睡眠时间.结果 6~12岁小学生周末睡眠时间高于上学日,但周末男生的平均睡眠时间低于女生(t=3.35,P< 0.05),女生睡眠时间并未呈随年龄增加而递减的趋势.周末睡眠严重不足、不足和适中的比例为13.63%(2 809/20 603)、27.27%(5 618/20 603)、59.10%(12 176/20 603);各年龄别儿童周末睡眠适中的比例(> 50%)明显高于上学日比例(< 30%);小学一年级的儿童即使周末仍然有超过1/3睡眠时间不足.上学日睡眠严重不足的儿童中,有近10%的儿童在周末处于睡眠不足的状态,而对于上学日睡眠时间属于睡眠不足、睡眠适中的儿童周末处于严重不足状态;上学日睡眠严重不足、不足和适中的儿童超过国家规定的10 h的比例为29.75%、64.48%、86.44%;周末睡眠时间少于平时、与平时基本一致、适度补眠(1 h内)和补眠过度(> 1 h),四者的比例分别为9.41%、22.77%、43.32%、24.50%;睡眠严重不足的学生中,补眠适度的比例仅超过40.00%;而睡眠不足、适中的学生中补眠适度的比例分别为54.00%和30.00%左右.睡眠适中的儿童中,周末睡眠时间少于平时的比例最高,接近20.00%;睡眠不足与严重不足的儿童中,周末少于平时的比例为8.16%和3.45%.结论 我国小学生周末过度补眠与周末睡眠不足的现象并存,睡眠习惯亟待改善.
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the differences on sleeping-time between school-days and weekends among elementary school children. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted from September to November,2010. A stratified random cluster sampling strategy was used to select the participants,under diverse geographical and economic levels in eight provinces,municipalities or autonomous regions,in mainland China. A total number of 20 603 elementary school children aged from 6-12 years old were chosen as research subjects to record their time of sleeping during school-days or weekends. Results Among the 6-12 year old,their time of sleeping was longer on weekends than that on school-days,while the average sleeping time during the weekends was longer in boys than in girls (t=3.35,P< 0.05). However,there was no linearly decreasing trend along with the increase of age regarding the time of sleeping on weekends,in girls. Proportions of serious lack of sleep,lack of sleep or with sufficient sleep during the weekends were 13.63%(2 809/20 603),27.27% (5 618/20 603) and 59.10% (12 176/20 603). The proportion of sufficient sleep (over 50%) was significantly higher on weekends than that on school-days (less than 30%),however,nearly one third of the first grade primary school children were sleep insufficiently even on weekends. Nearly 10.00% of the children under seriously or moderately lack of sleep on school-days were still in a serious lack of sleep state on weekends. The three groups who were categorized as serious lack of sleep (less than 9 h),lack of sleep (9-10 h) or having sufficient (over 10 h) sleep on school-days accounted for 29.75%,64.48%,86.44%,respectively,when compared with the national regulation set as 10 h daily sleep for the children in China. The proportions of those whose time of sleep on weekends was less than school-days in the three groups as the same,moderate (within 1 h),with 1 h caught-up or over,were 9.41%,22.77%,43.32%,24.50%,respectively. The percentage of pupils who caught up sleep appropriately (within 1 h) on weekends among those who were serious lack of sleep in school-days would exceed 40.00% while the proportions among those who lack of sleep or having sufficient on school-days were 54.00% and 30.00%. The percentage of children who slept less on weekends than on school-days among those having sufficient sleep on school-days appeared the highest,nearly 20.00%. However,the proportions among those who lack of sleep or seriously lack of sleep on school-days were 3.45% and 8.16%,respectively. Conclusion We found that the elementary school children who could catch up time of sleep or lack of sleep on weekends coexisting in our study. This situation called for attention and the sleeping habit in primary school children should also be urgently improved.
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