文章摘要
邓晓,金叶,彭绩,夏庆华,马剑平,王临虹,段蕾蕾.中国两城市使用儿童安全座椅影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2016,37(1):10-15
中国两城市使用儿童安全座椅影响因素分析
Analysis on influencing factors for child restraint system use in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China
收稿日期:2015-10-23  出版日期:2016-01-12
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2016.01.003
中文关键词: 儿童安全座椅;道路安全;影响因素
英文关键词: Child restraint system;Road safety;Influence factor
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
邓晓 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
金叶 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
彭绩 518020 深圳市慢性病防治中心  
夏庆华 200051 上海市长宁区疾病预防控制中心  
马剑平 518000 深圳市南山区慢性病防治院  
王临虹 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
段蕾蕾 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心 leileiduan@vip.sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      目的 分析家长使用儿童安全座椅的影响因素,为制定适宜干预措施及促进使用儿童安全座椅提供依据和建议。方法 采用自填式问卷调查法,对上海和深圳市分层整群随机抽样的7 528户家庭拥有≥1辆私家轿车的0~6岁儿童家长进行儿童安全座椅使用情况及影响因素调查;采用小组焦点访谈法,随机抽取完成问卷调查的家长访谈使用或不使用儿童安全座椅的原因等。结果 39.23%(2 820/7 189)的调查对象家庭拥有儿童安全座椅,儿童乘私家车出行时总是使用儿童安全座椅的比例为17.14%(1 232/7 189)。儿童年龄小、父母教育水平高、家庭经济条件好、家长对儿童乘车安全认知好是使用儿童安全座椅的保护性因素。儿童乘车出行的频率、距离和驾驶员安全带佩戴行为显著影响儿童安全座椅的使用。家长不购买儿童安全座椅的主要原因包括占用车内空间(53.33%,2 329/4 367)、乘车机会少(48.55%,2 120/4 367)、安装麻烦(42.25%,1 845/4 367)、价格过高(38.58%,1 685/4 367)、质量不可靠(31.03%,1 355/4 367);不使用的主要原因包括儿童不想坐(67.36%,293/435)、出行距离近(53.79%,234/435)、安装使用不方便(53.10%,231/435)、车内没有空间(32.41%,141/435)及认为没有必要(25.75%,112/435)。结论 家长在使用儿童安全座椅保护儿童乘车安全方面存在认知盲区和误区,并亟需对儿童安全座椅正确选购和使用的技术指导和服务,建议采取综合性干预措施,包括加强宣传教育、推进立法与执法、加强市场监管、建立儿童安全座椅相关服务站点、探索租赁市场等。
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the factors related with child restraint system (CRS) use, and provide evidence for the development of appropriate intervention measures to promote the use of CRS for the protection of child passengers' safety. Methods Self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted among 0-6 years old children's parents who owned private cars selected through stratified cluster random sampling in Shanghai and Shenzhen to collect date about CRS use and related factors. Group discussion was conducted among some of the parents randomly selected to further understand the reasons for using or not using CRS. Results Of 7 528 parents surveyed, 39.23% (2 820/7 189) reported to have CRS and 17.14%(1 232/7 189) reported consistent use of CRS. Multivariate analysis indicated that young age of children, high level of education of parents, good family economic status, awareness of importance of children's safety were the positive factors for CRS use. The frequency and distance of children'car taking and the seatbelt use of drivers significantly influenced the CRS use. The main reasons for not purchasing CRS included limited car space (53.33%, 2 329/4 367), low frequency of children car taking (48.55%, 2 120/4 367), difficulty in installation (42.25%, 1 845/4 367), high cost (38.58%, 1 685/4 367), and unreliable quality (31.03%, 1 355/4 367). The main reasons for not using CRS included children's refusal (67.36%, 293/435), short travel distance (53.79%, 234/435), difficulty in installation or use (53.10%, 231/435), limited car space (32.41%, 141/435), and unnecessary (25.75%, 112/435). Conclusions Parents have gaps and misunderstandings in using CRSs to protect child passengers safety. There are demands of technical guiding service in use of CRS. Integrated intervention measures should be implemented targeting at the identified barriers and needs in CRS use to promote child passenger safety, which include strengthening the propaganda and education, promoting the legislation and law enforcement, strengthening market supervision, establishing CRS related services site, exploring the rental market, etc.
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