文章摘要
王政和,董彦会,宋逸,杨忠平,马军.中国2014年9~22岁学生体育锻炼时间不足1小时的流行现状与影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2017,38(3):341-345
中国2014年9~22岁学生体育锻炼时间不足1小时的流行现状与影响因素分析
Analysis on prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China, 2014
收稿日期:2016-09-20  出版日期:2017-03-18
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2017.03.013
中文关键词: 体育锻炼;身体素质;学生;视频时间;课业负担
英文关键词: Physical activity;Physical fitness;Students;Screening time;Academic burden
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
王政和 100191 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所  
董彦会 100191 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所  
宋逸 100191 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所  
杨忠平 100191 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所  
马军 100191 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 majunt@bjmu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 探讨中国学生体育锻炼时间<1 h的现状及影响因素。方法 利用2014年全国学生体质与健康调研数据,选取问卷调查中体育锻炼时间等资料完整的9~22岁学生共220 159人作为研究对象,其中男生110 039人,女生110 120人;将研究对象分为体育锻炼时间<1 h和≥1 h两组,分年龄、性别分析体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率,采用χ2检验比较各年龄组男女生体育锻炼时间<1 h流行率的差异,同时采用单因素和多因素log-binomial回归模型分析影响中国学生体育锻炼时间<1 h的危险因素。结果 男生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率为73.3%,其中以9岁组最低(57.0%),18岁组最高(82.5%);女生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率为79.1%,其中同样以9岁组最低(60.1%),21岁组最高(89.8%)。总体而言,女生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率显著高于男生(P<0.001),各年龄组女生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率均高于男生,差异有统计学意义(均P<0.001),男女生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率均有随年龄增加而增加的趋势(趋势检验P<0.001)。多因素log-binomial回归模型分析发现,女生[现患率风险比(PR)=1.05,95% CI:1.05~1.06)]、父母不喜欢参加体育活动(PR=1.08,95% CI:1.07~1.09)、课业负担重(PR=1.13,95% CI:1.12~1.14)、做家庭作业时间长(PR=1.08,95% CI:1.07~1.08)、看电子屏幕时间长(PR=1.01,95% CI:1.00~1.01)和不喜欢上体育课(PR=1.11,95% CI:1.10~1.12)可能是学生体育锻炼时间<1 h的危险因素,居住在乡村(PR=0.99,95% CI:0.98~0.99)、父母不支持参加体育锻炼(PR=0.99,95% CI:1.98~1.00)可能是学生体育锻炼时间<1 h的保护因素,而看电视时间可能与体育锻炼时间<1 h无关(P=0.226)。结论 中国学生体育锻炼时间<1 h的流行率较高,女性、父母不喜欢参加体育活动、课业负担重、做家庭作业时间长、看电子屏幕时间长和不喜欢上体育课可能是其危险因素。
英文摘要:
      Objective To explore the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour and related factors in students aged 9-22 years in China. Methods A total of 220 159 students (110 039 boys and 110 120 girls) aged 9-22 years who completed the questionnaire of physical activity and lifestyle behaviors were selected from "2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance" for the current study. All the participants were divided into 2 groups, i.e. physical activity time <1 hour and physical activity time ≥ 1 hour according the suggestion of Central Government, stratified by age and gender. χ2 tests were used to compare the difference in the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour between boys and girls in every age groups. Univariate and multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to explore the factors that influenced the prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour. Results The boy's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 73.3%, with the lowest (57.0%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (82.5%) in 18 years old group. The girl's prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was 79.1%, with the lowest (60.1%) in 9-years-old group, and highest (89.8%) in 21 years old group. Overall, The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was significantly higher in girls than in boys (P<0.001), and the prevalence were significantly higher in girls than in boys in all the age groups (P<0.001), and it was observed that the prevalence of physical activity <1 hour increased with age in both boys and girls (P<0.001). Multivariate log-binomial regression model found that being girl (PR=1.05, 95%CI:1.05-1.06), parents' disliking children to participate physical activity (PR=1.08, 95%CI:1.07-1.09), heavy homework (PR=1.13, 95%CI:1.12-1.14), long homework time (PR=1.08, 95%CI:1.07-1.08), long time spending on electronic screen watching (PR=1.01, 95%CI:1.00-1.01) and disliking physical class (PR=1.11, 95%CI:1.10-1.12) could be the risk factors for physical activity time <1 hour, however, living in rural area (PR=0.99, 95%CI:0.98-0.99) and no supporting from parents for children to participate physical activity (PR=0.99, 95%CI:1.98-1.00) could be the protective factors, but no consistent association with the time of TV watching was observed (P=0.226). Conclusions The prevalence of physical activity time <1 hour was high in students aged 9-22 years in China. Female, parents; disliking children to participate physical activity, heavy homework, long homework time, long electronic screen watching time and disliking physical class might be the risk factors.
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