文章摘要
李艳荣,祝丽玲,朱武洋,陶晓燕.中国2016年狂犬病流行病学特征分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2018,39(1):40-43
中国2016年狂犬病流行病学特征分析
Epidemiology of human rabies in China, 2016
收稿日期:2017-06-14  出版日期:2018-01-13
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2018.01.008
中文关键词: 狂犬病;监测;流行特征
英文关键词: Rabies;Surveillance;Epidemiological characteristics
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0500400);国家自然科学基金(31500152)
作者单位E-mail
李艳荣 154007 佳木斯大学公共卫生学院  
祝丽玲 154007 佳木斯大学公共卫生学院 18045451675@163.com 
朱武洋 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心病毒病预防控制所  
陶晓燕 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心病毒病预防控制所 txy212@126.com 
摘要点击次数: 3154
全文下载次数: 1687
中文摘要:
      目的 分析2016年我国狂犬病流行病学特征,为狂犬病的防控对策提供依据。方法 疫情数据来源于传染病报告信息管理系统,监测数据来源于山东省、贵州省、安徽省、湖南省、江苏省和广西壮族自治区的国家级监测点。使用Excel 2013软件对数据进行处理和汇总,采用发病数、发病率、死亡率和构成比等指标分析和描述2016年我国狂犬病流行病学特征。结果 2016年全国共有28个省份共报告病例644例,较2015年下降19.60%(157/801)。我国狂犬病高发省份为河南省、湖南省、广西壮族自治区和贵州省,占全国发病数的39.44%(254/644),低发省份青海和新疆各报告1例。病例男、女性别比为2.14∶1(439/205),发病人群主要为农民(444/644)。监测点共报告暴露后就诊者1 281 340人,其中1 018 367人因犬咬或抓伤就诊。完成全程疫苗接种程序的764 234人,在Ⅱ级和Ⅲ级暴露者中占63.90%(764 234/1 195 956),在Ⅲ级暴露中28.89%(165 677/573 571)的就诊者注射被动免疫制剂。各监测点犬只平均密度为7.03只/100人,犬的平均免疫率为37.64%。结论 2016年我国狂犬病发病数继续下降,在地域分布上波及的省份增加,有向低发地区扩散的趋势。狂犬病发病人群以男性和农民为主,伤人动物主要为犬,防控狂犬病应加强农村地区知识宣传、提高犬免疫率。
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 and provide evidence for the control and prevention of human rabies. Methods The incidence data of human rabies in China in 2016 were collected from national infectious disease reporting information management system. The surveillance data were collected from provinces of Shandong, Guizhou, Anhui, Hunan, Jiangsu and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Excel 2013 software was used to process and summarize the data, the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in China in 2016 were described by using indicators such as morbidity, mortality and constituent ratio. Results A total of 644 human rabies cases were reported in 28 provinces in China in 2016, a decrease of 19.60% (157/801) compared with 2015. The provinces reporting high incidences of human rabies were Henan, Hunan, Guangxi and Guizhou, accounting for 39.44% (254/644) of the total cases. One case was reported in Qinghai province and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region respectively. The male to female ratio of the cases was 2.14:1 (439/205), and the majority of the patients were farmers (444/644). Surveillance points in 6 provinces reported 1 281 340 persons seeking post-exposure treatment, of whom 1 018 367 were treated for dog bite or scratch. A total of 764 234 persons completed the vaccination series, accounting for 63.90% (764 234/1 195 956) of the persons with grade Ⅱ and Ⅲ exposures, and 28.89% (165 677/573 571) of the persons with grade Ⅲ exposure were treated with passive immunization product. The average density of dogs in each surveillance area was 7.03/100 persons, the average canine immunization rate was 37.64%. Conclusion The incidence of human rabies has remained decline in China in 2016, the number of the affected provinces has increased and that has the tendency of spreading to low-risk regions. The cases mainly occurred in men and farmers, and caused by dog bite or scratch. It is necessary to strengthen the health education about rabies prevention and control in rural areas and expand the coverage of canine immunization to prevent and control human rabies.
查看全文   Html全文     查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭