文章摘要
王宁,冯雅靖,包鹤龄,丛舒,樊静,王宝华,王临虹,方利文.2014年中国40岁及以上人群吸烟现状调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2018,39(5):551-556
2014年中国40岁及以上人群吸烟现状调查
Survey of smoking prevalence in adults aged 40 years and older in China, 2014
收稿日期:2017-12-16  出版日期:2018-05-24
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2018.05.003
中文关键词: 慢性阻塞性肺疾病  吸烟  横断面研究  监测
英文关键词: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Smoking  Cross-sectional study  Surveillance
基金项目:中央转移支付重大公共卫生项目
作者单位E-mail
王宁 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
冯雅靖 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
包鹤龄 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
丛舒 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
樊静 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
王宝华 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
王临虹 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室  
方利文 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心呼吸病防控室 fangliwen@ncncd.chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 吸烟是COPD最重要的危险因素。了解我国≥40岁居民吸烟率、现在吸烟率、平均开始吸烟年龄及日均吸烟量等指标,为有效防控COPD提供科学依据。方法 数据源于2014-2015年中国居民COPD监测,该监测覆盖中国31个省(自治区、直辖市)。采用多阶段分层整群抽样,共调查125个监测点(县、区)的≥40岁居民75 107名,采用面对面询问调查方式,应用电子化问卷收集相关数据。对样本进行复杂抽样加权后,估计不同特征人群吸烟状况。结果 2014年中国≥40岁人群吸烟率为40.0%(95% CI:38.5%~42.0%),现在吸烟率为31.0%(95% CI:29.7%~32.0%)。男性吸烟率、现在吸烟率(74.1%、57.6%)远高于女性(5.4%、4.0%),乡村吸烟率、现在吸烟率(41.2%、32.4%)显著高于城镇(38.8%、29.5%)。吸烟者平均开始吸烟年龄为20.1(95% CI:19.7~20.5)岁。吸烟者年龄越小,平均开始吸烟年龄越早(40~、50~、60~、≥70岁年龄组吸烟人群平均开始吸烟年龄分别为18.3、19.2、20.9和23.1岁)。每日吸烟者日均吸烟量为18.9支,男性日均吸烟量(19.3支)大于女性(12.5支)。结论 中国≥40岁男性吸烟率高,乡村地区吸烟率较城镇高,给COPD防控工作带来极大挑战。
英文摘要:
      Objective Smoking is the most important risk factor for COPD. Understanding the smoking rate, current smoking rate, average age to start smoking and average daily consumption of cigarettes among people aged ≥ 40 years in China can provide scientific evidence for the effective control and prevention of COPD. Methods Data were from COPD surveillance in China (2014 to 2015) which covered 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. A total of 75 107 adults aged ≥ 40 years selected through multi-stage stratified cluster sampling from 125 surveillance sites (county/district) were surveyed by electronic questionnaire during face to face interviews. The smoking rate and other smoking index were estimated by using weighting complex sampling design. Results The smoking rate and current smoking rate were 40.0% (95% CI:38.5%-42.0%) and 31.0% (95% CI:29.7%-32.0%), respectively, among the Chinese aged ≥ 40 years in 2014. The smoking rate and current smoking rate in males (74.1% and 57.6%) were much higher than those in females (5.4% and 4.0%). And the two rates were significantly higher in rural area (41.2% and 32.4%) than in urban area (38.8% and 29.5%). The mean age of smokers to start smoking was 20.1 (95% CI:19.7-20.5)years. The younger the smokers were, the earlier their average age to start smoking was (The ages to start smoking for smokers aged 40-, 50-, 60-, ≥ 70 years were 18.3, 19.2, 20.9 and 23.1 years, respectively). Average daily cigarette consumption of current daily smokers was 18.9 (95% CI:18.1-19.7) cigarettes, and the daily cigarette consumption was higher in males (19.3 cigarettes) than in females (12.5 cigarettes). Conclusion The smoking rate in males aged ≥ 40 years is high in China. Compared with urban area, the smoking rate in rural area is higher, posing a big challenge for COPD control and prevention.
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