文章摘要
彭质斌,王大燕,杨娟,杨鹏,张延炀,陈健,陈涛,郑亚明,郑建东,姜世强,徐莉立,康敏,秦颖,赵梦娇,李中杰,冯录召.中国流感疫苗应用现状及促进预防接种的政策探讨[J].中华流行病学杂志,2018,39(8):1045-1050
中国流感疫苗应用现状及促进预防接种的政策探讨
Current situation and related policies on the implementation and promotion of influenza vaccination, in China
投稿时间:2018-05-31  
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2018.08.007
中文关键词: 流感疫苗;预防接种;促进;政策建议
英文关键词: Influenza vaccine;Vaccination;Promotion;Policy considerations
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
彭质斌 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
王大燕 102206 北京, 病毒病预防控制所 国家流感中心  
杨娟 200032 上海, 复旦大学公共卫生学院  
杨鹏 100013 北京市疾病预防控制中心  
张延炀 450016 郑州, 河南省疾病预防控制中心  
陈健 200336 上海市疾病预防控制中心  
陈涛 102206 北京, 病毒病预防控制所 国家流感中心  
郑亚明 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
郑建东 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
姜世强 518054 深圳市南山区疾病预防控制中心  
徐莉立 810007 西宁, 青海省疾病预防控制中心  
康敏 511430 广州, 广东省疾病预防控制中心  
秦颖 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
赵梦娇 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
李中杰 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处  
冯录召 102206 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制处 fenglz@chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      流感是一种疫苗可预防性疾病,每年接种流感疫苗是预防流感及其并发症的最有效手段。流感疫苗在我国是二类疫苗,年平均接种率仅2%~3%。接种率低的原因包括公众对流感和流感疫苗认知不足、医务人员极少推荐、接种服务可及性和费用等。为促进我国流感疫苗的预防接种,降低流感对公众的健康危害和经济负担,应考虑采取综合政策措施积极推动流感疫苗预防接种工作,包括采用不同筹资方式和机制,提高重点人群的接种意愿和接种率、改进免疫服务公平性的效果和效率;提高医务人员和公众对流感和疫苗预防的认识,改进临床预防实践,通过制订临床指南、路径、专家共识等多种渠道,推动临床医生对流感疫苗预防接种建议的推荐;加快预防接种工作体系建设,为公众提供更方便、可及和规范的预防接种;加大新型流感疫苗研发支持力度,加快新型流感疫苗上市应用;修订我国药典中"妊娠期妇女为流感疫苗接种禁忌"的条款。
英文摘要:
      Influenza can be prevented through annual appropriate vaccination against the virus concerned. In China, influenza vaccine is categorized as "Class Ⅱ" infectious diseases which the cost is paid out of the user's pockets. The annual coverage of influenza vaccination had been 2%-3%. The main reasons for the low coverage would include the following factors:lacking awareness on both the disease and vaccine, poor accessibility of vaccination service, and the cost of vaccination. To reduce the health and economic burden associated with influenza, comprehensive policies should be improved, targeting the coverage of seasonal influenza vaccination. These items would include:① Different financing reimbursement schemes and mechanisms to improve the aspiration on vaccination and on the vaccine coverage in high-risk groups, as young children, elderly, people with underlying medical conditions; ② to ameliorate equality of vaccination services; ③ to improve knowledge of the health care workers (HCWs) and the public on influenza and related vaccines; ④ to improve clinical and preventive medical practice and vaccination among HCWs through revising clinical guidelines, pathway and consensus of experts; ⑤ to provide more convenient, accessible and normative vaccination service system; ⑥ to strengthen research and development as well as marketing on novel influenza vaccines; ⑦ to revise items regarding the contraindication for influenza vaccine on pregnancy women, stated in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
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