文章摘要
温勃,徐荣彬,杨忠平,宋逸,王政和,董彦会,马军.2014年中国13~18岁学生体质健康现状及地区分布[J].中华流行病学杂志,2019,40(6):616-620
2014年中国13~18岁学生体质健康现状及地区分布
Physical fitness and its regional distribution of Chinese students aged 13 to 18 in 2014
投稿时间:2018-12-13  
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.06.003
中文关键词: 体质;健康状况;学生
英文关键词: Physical fitness;Health status;Students
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
温勃 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
徐荣彬 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
杨忠平 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
宋逸 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
王政和 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
董彦会 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
马军 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191 majunt@bjmu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 应用2014年国家学生体质健康标准,评价和探讨我国13~18岁学生的体质健康水平及地区分布。方法 选取2014年“全国学生体质与健康调研”中13~18岁学生的相关数据,计算体质健康综合得分、及格率(总分≥60.0分的人数比例)和优秀率(总分≥90.0分的人数比例)。采用t检验比较两组间均数的差异,采用单因素方差分析比较多组间均数的差异,采用χ2检验比较体质健康及格率和优秀率的组间差异,采用Pearson相关系数检验各指标与各省份人均GDP的相关性。结果 按照国家学生体质健康标准,2014年13~18岁学生综合得分为(70.1±10.7)分,综合得分及格的人数为88 805名(83.9%),综合得分优秀的人数为1 734名(1.6%)。13~15岁的学生在平均分、及格率和优秀率上均高于16~18岁的学生。男生的平均分和及格率略低于女生,而优秀率略高于女生;城市学生的平均分和及格率略低于乡村学生,而优秀率高于乡村学生;男女生的及格率与优秀率均随年龄增长而下降。东部沿海发达省份体质健康水平相对较高,平均分、及格率和优秀率与各省份人均GDP的Pearson相关系数分别为0.56、0.43、0.65。结论 2014年我国13~18岁学生的体质健康状况不容乐观,且高年龄段、欠发达地区问题尤其严重。
英文摘要:
      Objective To evaluate the physical fitness and its regional distribution of students aged 13-18 years in China, using the National Standards for Students' Physical Fitness (revised in 2014). Methods We recruited 105 834 students aged 13 to 18 years from the Chinese National Survey on Students Constitution and Health project in 2014. Related total scores, rates for qualified and for excellence (the proportions of individuals whose total score greater than or equal to 60.0 or 90.0) of these students were gathered. T test was applied to compare means of total score in different groups. χ2 test was used to compare the differences of qualified or excellence rates between different groups while Pearson correlation method was applied to test the relation of each index with per capita GDP. Results The average score was (70.1±10.7) among students aged 13 to 18 years in China. 88 805 (83.9%) students whose score exceeded 60.0 while 1 734 (1.6%) exceeded 90.0. Average score, rates of both qualified or excellence of students aged 13 to 15 appeared higher than those aged 16 to 18 but lower in males than in females. However, the rate of excellence was much higher in male students. Students living in urban areas showed both lower average score and qualified rate but higher rate of excellence than those living in rural areas. Both qualified and Excellent rates decreased with the increase of age in both sexes. We also noticed that both higher physical fitness and health status appeared in students from the east coast. Pearson correlation coefficient of each index (average score, qualified or Excellent rate) on per capital GDP appeared as 0.56, 0.43 and 0.65, respectively. Conclusion In 2014, the physical fitness of Chinese students aged 13 to 18 was not satisfactory, with older students and those living in underdeveloped areas, in particular.
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