文章摘要
高春海,胡小琪,张倩,徐培培,李荔,杨媞媞,曹薇,甘倩,潘慧,许娟.2016年中国贫困农村地区留守儿童贫血及其相关因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2019,40(12):1548-1553
2016年中国贫困农村地区留守儿童贫血及其相关因素分析
Anemia status and related factors among left-behind children in poverty-stricken rural areas, in China, 2016
收稿日期:2019-03-19  出版日期:2019-12-20
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.12.008
中文关键词: 贫血  留守儿童  贫困农村地区  食物摄入
英文关键词: Anemia  Left-behind children  Poverty-stricken rural area  Food intakes
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
高春海 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
胡小琪 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
张倩 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
徐培培 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
李荔 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
杨媞媞 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
曹薇 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
甘倩 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
潘慧 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050  
许娟 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所, 北京 100050 xujuan@ninh.chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解我国贫困农村地区留守儿童贫血状况及其相关因素,为农村留守儿童贫血防治提供基础信息。方法 利用2016年农村义务教育学生营养改善计划监测数据,采用多阶段分层随机整群抽样的方法,选取我国贫困农村地区6~17岁留守儿童为调查对象。利用氰化高铁法检测血红蛋白的浓度,根据WHO推荐的贫血诊断标准按海拔高度调整后判定其贫血状况。利用问卷调查收集儿童各类食物摄入频率。分析调查对象血红蛋白水平和贫血率,以及贫血与各类食物摄入的关系。结果 中国贫困农村地区6~17岁留守儿童贫血率为11.6%,其中,6岁组、7岁组、15岁组以及16~17岁组的贫血率较高,分别为21.1%、18.0%、20.6%和17.3%。10~11岁、13~15岁组留守女童贫血率高于留守男童,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。女生(OR=1.34,95% CI:1.23~1.45)、初中1~3年级(OR=1.47,95% CI:1.30~1.67)和母亲外出打工(OR=1.32,95% CI:1.16~1.50)的留守儿童贫血发生比例较高;而西部(OR=0.85,95% CI:0.78~0.93)、每天吃早餐(OR=0.70,95% CI:0.64~0.76)、每周吃肉类食物≥ 2次(OR=0.84,95% CI:0.75~0.93)和每天吃新鲜蔬菜≥ 2种(OR=0.85,95% CI:0.75~0.96)贫血发生的比例较低。结论 中国贫困农村地区留守儿童贫血率较高,尤其要关注青春发育初期的初中1~3年级学生,以及女童和母亲外出打工的留守儿童。通过坚持每天吃早餐,膳食中增加肉类和新鲜蔬菜摄入等干预可以减少贫困农村地区留守儿童贫血的发生。
英文摘要:
      Objective To explore the prevalence of anemia and related factors among left-behind children in poverty-stricken rural areas in China, to provide basic information for anemia prevention and treatment for children. Methods Data from the National Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students in 2016 were used to express the prevalence of anemia among left-behind children. By using the multistage stratified random cluster sampling method, left-behind children of the 6-17-years-old in poverty-stricken rural areas were recruited in this study. Blood hemoglobin concentration of these students was determined by cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the WHO recommended standard and combined with the sea level elevation correction standard. Frequencies of food intake were collected through questionnaires. Data was then available for analysis including the level of hemoglobin and anemia rates. Relationship between anemia and food intakes as well as other influential factors was also analyzed. Results The overall anemia prevalence (AP) was 11.6% among the participants. Rates of AP among the 6-, 7-, 15-and 16-17-years-old were 21.1%, 18.0%, 20.6% and 17.3%, respectively. Rates of AP among left-behind girls of 10-11-years-old and the 13-15-years-old were significantly higher than those in boys at the same age (P<0.01) group. Factors including:being girls (OR=1.34, 95% CI:1.23-1.45), at grade 7 to 9 (OR=1.47, 95% CI:1.30-1.67) and mother being migrant worker (OR=1.32, 95% CI:1.16-1.50) had higher proportions of getting anemia. Factors as living in the western area (OR=0.85, 95% CI:0.78-0.93), taking breakfast every day (OR=0.70, 95% CI:0.64-0.76), having meat more than twice per week (OR=0.84, 95% CI:0.75-0.93) and having two kinds of vegetables per day (OR=0.85, 95% CI:0.75-0.96) appeared protective. Conclusions Prevalence of anemia in left-behind children from the poverty-stricken rural areas was high, including junior middle school students from grade 7 to 9 at the early stage of youth development, girls and children with mothers as migrant workers. Anemia should be reduced by promoting the protective factors as having breakfast, increasing intakes of meat and fresh vegetables.
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