文章摘要
史欣然,陈天娇,马军.儿童青少年饮食行为模式的家庭影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2020,41(8):1291-1295
儿童青少年饮食行为模式的家庭影响因素分析
Analysis of family influencing factors of dietary behavior pattern of children and adolescents
收稿日期:2019-09-09  出版日期:2020-08-25
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20190909-00658
中文关键词: 饮食;家庭特征;儿童;青少年
英文关键词: Diet;Family characteristics;Children;Adolescents
基金项目:卫生公益性行业科研专项(201202010)
作者单位E-mail
史欣然 北京大学公共卫生学院/北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
陈天娇 北京大学公共卫生学院/北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191 tianjiao.chen@hsc.pku.edu.cn 
马军 北京大学公共卫生学院/北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 100191  
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解7~18岁儿童青少年的饮食行为模式,并评估影响饮食行为模式的家庭因素。方法 在北京市房山区采用分层整群抽样的方法按城市、乡村、小学、初中进行分层,每层抽取4所学校,通过体格检查和问卷调查,共得到2 438份学生及其家长合格数据。通过因子分析得到儿童青少年的饮食行为模式;采用秩和检验和Pearson相关分析对家庭特征与饮食行为模式进行单因素分析;采用混合线性模型分析饮食行为模式与不同家庭特征之间的关系。结果 确定了2种饮食行为模式,即风险饮食行为和保护饮食行为模式。母亲BMI是儿童青少年风险饮食行为模式的影响因素(P=0.011)。除父亲BMI外,独生子女、父母文化程度、家庭月收入、父母生育年龄和母亲BMI均与保护饮食行为模式有关(均P<0.05)。调整儿童青少年性别、年龄、城乡和BMI z评分后,父母文化程度较低和有更高家庭月收入家庭的孩子更倾向于风险饮食行为模式(β=-0.10,95% CI:-0.16~-0.04; β=0.07,95% CI:0.02~0.12)。保护饮食行为模式与父母文化程度(β=0.08,95% CI:0.02~0.14)、家庭月收入(β=0.06,95% CI:0.02~0.11)和母亲生育年龄(β=0.02,95% CI:0.00~0.03)呈正相关。独生子女家庭的孩子更符合保护饮食行为模式(β=-0.13,95% CI:-0.22~-0.03)。结论 不同家庭特征下儿童青少年的饮食行为存在差异,在饮食行为干预中应促进较低父母文化程度、低家庭月收入、低母亲生育年龄和多子女家庭孩子的保护饮食行为的建立,纠正低父母文化程度和高家庭月收入孩子的风险饮食行为。
英文摘要:
      Objective To identify dietary patterns among children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 and the associations between these patterns and family characteristics. Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data was collected on 2 438 students and their parents through physical examinations and questionnaires. Students were from 16 schools (4 urban primary schools, 4 rural primary schools, 4 urban middle schools, and 4 rural middle schools) in Fangshan district, Beijing. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Rank sum tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the correlations between family characteristics and the scores on dietary patterns. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the associations between family characteristics and dietary patterns, for univariate analyses. Results Two dietary patterns were identified:the risk pattern and the protective pattern. Results from the univariate analyses showed that maternal BMI was associated with the risk pattern (P=0.011). All factors, including the only-child, parental education level, monthly household income, paternal age at birth and maternal BMI, were related to the protective pattern (all P<0.05) except for the paternal BMI. After adjusting for gender, age, locations of residence (urban-rural) and BMI z-score, children with a lower parental education level and higher monthly household income were more likely to adhere to the risk pattern (β=-0.10, 95%CI:-0.16—-0.04; β=0.07, 95%CI:0.02-0.12, respectively). For the protective pattern, the scores were positively associated with parental education level (β=0.08, 95%CI:0.02-0.14), monthly household income (β=0.06, 95%CI:0.02-0.11) and maternal age at birth (β=0.02, 95%CI:0.00-0.03). Children from the one-child families were more likely to adhere to the protective pattern (β=-0.13, 95%CI:-0.22—-0.03). Conclusions Differences of dietary behaviors were seen among children and adolescents from families with different characteristics. Protective patterns for children from families with lower parental education, lower monthly household income, lower maternal age at birth or multiple children etc. should be promoted. Risk patterns of children with lower parental educational or higher monthly household income also need to be corrected.
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