文章摘要
王红,曹梦迪,刘成成,严鑫鑫,黄慧瑶,张玥,陈宏达,任建松,李霓,陈万青,代敏,石菊芳.中国人群结直肠癌疾病负担:近年是否有变?[J].中华流行病学杂志,2020,41(10):1633-1642
中国人群结直肠癌疾病负担:近年是否有变?
Disease burden of colorectal cancer in China: any changes in recent years?
收稿日期:2020-03-06  出版日期:2020-10-27
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200306-00273
中文关键词: 结直肠肿瘤;发病率;死亡率;疾病负担
英文关键词: Colorectal neoplasm;Incidence;Mortality;Burden of disease
基金项目:中国医学科学院医学与健康科技创新工程(2017-I2M-1-006);美国中华医学基金会卫生政策与体系科学公开竞标项目(19-340);国家自然科学基金(81773521);中国医学科学院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费青年医学人才奖励项目(2018RC330001)
作者单位E-mail
王红 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
曹梦迪 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
刘成成 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
严鑫鑫 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
黄慧瑶 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院药物临床试验研究中心, 北京 100021  
张玥 首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院科技处, 北京 100026 zhangyue222@yeah.net 
陈宏达 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
任建松 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
李霓 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
陈万青 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
代敏 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021  
石菊芳 国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院北京协和医学院肿瘤医院癌症早诊早治办公室, 北京 100021 shijf@cicams.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 对我国人群结直肠癌疾病负担进行汇总更新。方法 基于2015年发表的1项系统分析,就其后有数据更新的GLOBOCAN、《中国肿瘤登记年报》(年报)和Cancer Incidence in Five Continents(CI5)3个数据源,新增全球疾病负担项目(GBD2017)、《中国死因监测数据集》和《中国卫生健康统计年鉴》(年鉴)3个数据源,摘录6个数据源中我国人群结直肠癌发病、死亡和伤残调整寿命年(DALY)、分部位构成变化等数据,主要采用世标率,分析最新疾病负担情况。应用Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software 4.7.0.0软件进行时间趋势分析。作为广义疾病负担的一部分,采用文献法汇总整理我国结直肠癌经济负担相关数据。结果 ①现状:年报显示,2015年我国肿瘤登记地区结直肠癌发病率和死亡率分别为17.1/10万和7.9/10万,发病率男女性别比和城乡比分别为1.5和1.4,死亡率分别为1.6和1.4。与年报数据接近,死因监测数据显示,2017年我国结直肠癌死亡率为6.9/10万。GBD显示2017年我国结直肠癌所致DALY负担达425.4万人年(为1990年的2倍),占全球22.4%。②趋势:年报数据显示,2009-2015年全国结直肠癌发病率和死亡率分别下降10.2%和9.5%,城市亦均下降,但农村均上升(增幅分别为20.0%和15.2%);对应Joinpoint分析提示全国死亡率的平均年度变化百分比(AAPC)为-1.6%(P<0.05),其中城市发病率和死亡率均下降(AAPC分别为-1.5%和-1.4%)(均P<0.05),农村发病率上升(AAPC为3.3%)(P<0.05)。年鉴数据显示,与2004年相比,2017年城市和农村死亡率分别增加9.8%和20.6%,但Joinpoint分析AAPC无明显变化(P<0.05)。③分部位:年报显示2015年我国结直肠癌新发病例中,结肠癌、直肠癌和肛门癌分别占49.6%、49.2%和1.2%,对应2009年占比依次为51.3%、47.6%和1.1%,结肠癌占比始终为城市(>52%)高于农村(<44%)。CI5第Ⅺ卷细化部位信息显示,结肠癌以升结肠和乙状结肠居多。④经济负担:我国结直肠癌例均诊治费用年均增长率在6.9%~9.2%不等,患者确诊1年内的个人卫生支出约占其家庭收入的60%。结论 我国结直肠癌疾病负担近年整体平稳中可能略有下降,在农村的上升应关注;与前期研究一致,城市和男性仍为防控重点;结肠部位的癌症占比在城市更高,提示社会经济和医疗技术对疾病发生发现有影响。此外,结直肠癌所致经济负担在持续上升。
英文摘要:
      Objective To update the disease burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Chinese population by integrating the latest multi-source evidences. Methods Groups of data from GLOBOCAN, series of Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (annual report), Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5), Global Burden of Disease Project 2017 (GBD), China Death Cause Surveillance Datasets and China Health Statistical Yearbooks (yearbook) were used to extract the information. Data on incidence, mortality, disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and percentage distribution of sub-location of CRC were used to analyze the latest disease burden in China, and age-standardized rates by world standard population were mainly used. Joinpoint Trend Analysis Software 4.7.0.0 was applied for time trend analysis. Data related to the economic burden of CRC in China were gathered by literature review. Results (1) Current status: according to the latest annual report, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC were 17.1 per 100 000 and 7.9 per 100 000, respectively among the covered registration sites in 2015. The incidence ratios of male to female and that of urban to rural were 1.5 and 1.4, with the mortality ratios were 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. Similar to data from the annual report, the mortality rate was reported as 6.9 per 100 000 in 2017 by the surveillance data sets. Data from the GBD project showed that, the DALYs caused by CRC in China in 2017 was 4.254 million person years (doubled compared with that of 1990), accounting for 22.4% of the global burden of CRC. (2) Time trends: according to the annual reports, from 2009 to 2015, the incidence rate and mortality rate of CRC in China decreased by 10.2% and 9.5%, respectively. The same trend was also observed in urban sites, but was opposite in rural areas (increased 20.0% in incidence and 15.2% in mortality). Results from the Joinpoint analysis showed that the averaged annual percentage change (AAPC) was estimated as -1.6% (P<0.05) in the national mortality rate. Similarly, in the incidence and mortality rates of urban sites appeared as AAPC=-1.5% and -1.4% (all P<0.05), but inversely in the incidence rate from the rural sites as AAPC=3.3% (P<0.05). The yearbook data showed a 9.8% increase in urban and 20.6% increase in rural on the mortality in 2017 when compared with 2004, but the Joinpoint analysis showed no statistical significance (P<0.05). (3) Distribution of sub-location of CRC: the annual report showed that among all the new CRC cases in China in 2015, colon, rectal and anal cancer accounted for 49.6%, 49.2% and 1.2%, respectively, while the proportions were 51.3%, 47.6% and 1.1%, respectively in 2009. The proportion of colon cancer was continuously higher in the urban (>52%) than that in the rural areas (<44%). The CI5 Ⅺ data showed that ascending and sigmoid colons were more commonly seen among all the colon cancers. (4) Economic burden: the average annual growth rate of the medical expenditure per CRC patient in China ranged from 6.9% to 9.2%, and the 1-year out-of-pocket expenditure of a newly diagnosed patient accounted for about 60% of their previous-year household income. Conclusions In China, the overall disease burden of CRC might have been decreased slightly but generally remained stable in the last several years, however, the rising burden appeared in the rural areas should not be ignored. In consistent with findings from a previous review, men and people from the urban areas are considered the target populations for CRC. The finding of higher proportion of colon cancer in urban areas suggests the impact of development of socioeconomic and medical technologies on CRC development and detection. The economic burden of CRC continued to grow.
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