文章摘要
王雨潇,李靖欣,刘沛,朱凤才.禽流感病毒研究进展及抗H7N9型病毒疫苗与抗体研究[J].中华流行病学杂志,2021,42(9):1700-1708
禽流感病毒研究进展及抗H7N9型病毒疫苗与抗体研究
Progress in research of avian influenza virus and human monoclonal antibody and vaccines against H7N9 virus
收稿日期:2021-03-23  出版日期:2021-09-27
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20210323-00242
中文关键词: 流感病毒;禽流感病毒;H7N9型;单克隆抗体;疫苗;临床试验
英文关键词: Influenza virus;Avian influenza virus;H7N9;Monoclonal antibody;Vaccine;Clinical trial
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
王雨潇 东南大学公共卫生学院流行病与卫生统计学系, 南京 210000  
李靖欣 江苏省疾病预防控制中心疫苗临床评价所, 南京 210000  
刘沛 东南大学公共卫生学院流行病与卫生统计学系, 南京 210000 liupeiseu@126.com 
朱凤才 江苏省疾病预防控制中心疫苗临床评价所, 南京 210000 jszfc@vip.sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      禽流感病毒(avian influenza virus,AIV)是一种可引起急性呼吸道传染病的人畜共患病毒。自2013年我国出现了全球首例人感染H7N9型AIV病例以来,人们对该病毒产生了担忧与恐慌。AIV在全球广泛传播,人感染不同型别AIV事件也持续发生,造成了巨大的经济损失。目前尚无针对该病的特异性治疗措施与药物,疫苗成为最有可能预防控制病毒传播的手段。现有针对H7N9型AIV的兽用与人用疫苗种类繁多,其中,4类人用H7N9型AIV疫苗已经率先进入了临床试验阶段,主要包括了病毒样颗粒疫苗、减毒活疫苗、灭活疫苗及DNA疫苗,并显示出了良好的安全性和免疫原性。因为暂无上市的人用AIV疫苗,所以其真实效力不得而知。此外,现有的流感疫苗在人群中虽然具有良好的安全性和免疫原性,但对H7N9型AIV并无交叉抗体反应。本文回顾AIV的病原学、流行病学、职业暴露人群调查与防控策略、H7N9型AIV疫苗及H7N9型AIV全人源单克隆抗体研究进展,讨论尚存的问题和挑战以及未来的发展方向,为加深对疾病的了解以及控制AIV在全球的蔓延提供防控策略与方针。
英文摘要:
      Avian influenza virus (AIV) is a kind of zoonotic virus which can cause acute respiratory infectious diseases. Since the report of the world's first human infection case of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China in 2013, close attention has been paid to the virus. AIV spreads widely around the world, and human infection with different types of AIV continues to occur, causing huge economic losses. At present, there are no specific treatment and drugs against the disease, and vaccination is considered as the most promising and effective method to control the human infection with AIV. So far, there are many kinds of veterinary and human vaccines for H7N9 AIV, among which four types of human H7N9 AIV vaccines have entered the clinical trial stage, including virus-like particles vaccine, attenuated live vaccine, inactivated vaccine and DNA vaccine, which have shown good safety and immunogenicity. However, the true efficacies of the AIV vaccines remain unknown because no human vaccines are currently available in the market. In addition, although the existing influenza vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity in the human population, there is no cross-antibody response to H7N9 AIV. This paper summarizes the research progress of AIV etiology and epidemiology, the occupational exposure population investigation, the infection prevention and control strategies, and H7N9 AIV vaccine and H7N9 AIV anthropogenic monoclonal antibody, and discuss the remained problems, challenges and future trends in the research of AVI to improve the understanding of the disease and the prevention and control of global spread of AIV.
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