文章摘要
徐培培,张倩,杨媞媞,许娟,甘倩,曹薇,李荔,潘慧,赵文华.2019年 “农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区中小学生贫血状况及影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2022,43(4):496-502
2019年 “农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区中小学生贫血状况及影响因素分析
Anemia prevalence and its influencing factors among students involved in the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students in 2019
收稿日期:2021-08-10  出版日期:2022-04-16
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20210810-00627
中文关键词: 血红蛋白|贫血|中小学生
英文关键词: Hemoglobin|Anemia|Primary and middle school student
基金项目:公共卫生专项任务经费(131031107000180004)
作者单位E-mail
徐培培 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
张倩 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
杨媞媞 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
许娟 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
甘倩 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
曹薇 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
李荔 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050
国家癌症中心/国家肿瘤临床医学研究中心/中国医学科学院肿瘤医院, 北京 100021 
 
潘慧 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050  
赵文华 中国疾病预防控制中心营养与健康所/国家卫健委微量元素与营养重点实验室, 北京 100050 zhaowh@chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 分析2019年“农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区中小学生贫血状况及其影响因素。方法 研究对象为2019年“农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区47 297名6~17岁中小学生。依据2011年WHO贫血诊断标准,分析比较不同性别、年龄、地区中小学生的血红蛋白水平和贫血率,并采用多因素logistic回归模型分析贫血的影响因素。结果 2019年我国“农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区中小学生血红蛋白均值为135.19 g/L,贫血率为8.7%;女生贫血率(10.0%)高于男生(7.4%),西部地区贫血率(9.8%)高于中部地区(7.1%);西北、西南、中南、华东、华北及东北地区贫血率分别为10.2%、9.7%、8.3%、7.5%、5.7%和3.5%;6~、11~、14~17岁年龄组贫血率分别为8.0%、8.3%和10.9%。多因素logistic回归分析显示,不使用营养配餐软件的学校(OR=1.482,95%CI:1.296~1.694,P<0.001)、午餐不供应肉类食物的学校(OR=1.241,95%CI:1.103~1.395,P<0.001)以及低收入家庭(OR=1.297,95%CI:1.211~1.389,P<0.001)的学生贫血发生风险更高;模型增加学生饮食相关因素后显示,每周吃≥3次肉类食物的学生贫血发生风险较低(OR=0.907,95%CI:0.832~0.989,P=0.026)。结论 “农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”对我国中小学生贫血改善已产生重要影响,但“农村义务教育学生营养改善计划”覆盖地区学生贫血率仍高于全国平均水平,学生家庭收入、学校所在地、学校配餐能力及食物供应种类等是中小学生贫血发生率的主要影响因素,需要各方给予进一步关注和重视。
英文摘要:
      Objective To analyze anemia prevalence and its influencing factors of students involved in the Nutritional Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students in 2019. Methods From the 2019 surveillance system of the Nutrition Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students, 47 297 primary and middle school students aged 6-17 were included in the study. Hemoglobin level was tested according to the criteria of WHO 2011. Anemia prevalence of different genders, ages, and regions was analyzed. Results The average hemoglobin level was 135.19 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia as 8.7% in the children aged 6-17. The prevalence of anemia was 10.0% in girls, higher than that in boys (7.4%). The prevalence rates in western and central areas were 9.8% and 7.1%, respectively. From northwest, southwest, central and south, east, north to northeast areas of China, the anemia rate appeared gradually decreasing (10.2%, 9.7%, 8.3%, 7.5%, 5.7% and 3.5%). The anemia prevalence rates were 8.0%, 8.3%, and 10.9% in children from the 6-, 11-, and 14-17 years age groups, respectively. Logistic regression models revealed that students from schools not using catering software (OR=1.482, 95%CI:1.296-1.694,P<0.001), schools not serving lunch (OR=1.241, 95%CI:1.103-1.395,P<0.001), and from relatively low-income families (OR=1.297, 95%CI:1.211-1.389,P<0.001) showed as risk factors for anemia. After supplementing students' dietary factors, the results showed that students who ate meat three or more times a week had a lower risk of anemia (OR=0.907, 95%CI:0.832-0.989,P=0.026). Conclusions The Nutritional Improvement Program for Rural Compulsory Education Students had an essential impact on improving the anemia prevalence of primary and middle school students. Family income, school location, economic factors, school feeding, and students' diet programs all impacted the prevalence of anemia.
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