文章摘要
黄亚阳,邸新博,南奕,曾新颖,谢慧宇,孟子达,肖琳,刘世炜.2010年与2018年中国15岁及以上非现在吸烟人群二手烟暴露情况及影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2022,43(6):824-829
2010年与2018年中国15岁及以上非现在吸烟人群二手烟暴露情况及影响因素分析
Secondhand smoke exposure and its influencing factors among Chinese people aged 15 years and above in 2010 and 2018
收稿日期:2021-11-30  出版日期:2022-06-16
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20211130-00930
中文关键词: 二手烟;公共场所;家庭;禁烟规定
英文关键词: Secondhand smoke;Public places;Family;Smoking ban
基金项目:世界卫生组织全球成人烟草流行调查项目(WPCHN1814405)
作者单位E-mail
黄亚阳 北京市疾病预防控制中心健康促进办公室/控烟办公室, 北京 100013
北京大学公共卫生学院/儿童青少年卫生研究所, 北京 100191 
 
邸新博 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
南奕 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
曾新颖 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
谢慧宇 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
孟子达 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
肖琳 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050  
刘世炜 中国疾病预防控制中心控烟办公室, 北京 100050 liusw@chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解2010与2018年中国≥15岁非现在吸烟人群二手烟暴露情况及其影响因素。方法 2010与2018年中国成人烟草调查均覆盖全国31个省(自治区、直辖市),采用多阶段分层整群随机抽样获得全国代表性样本。本研究选择≥15岁非现在吸烟人群作为研究对象,经基于复杂抽样加权后,对一般人口学特征、二手烟危害的认知、公共场所室内区域禁烟的态度,以及不同场所二手烟暴露情况、限制吸烟的规定进行描述,采用Rao-Scott χ2检验进行率的比较、非条件logistic回归进行二手烟暴露影响因素分析。结果 ≥15岁非现在吸烟人群中,看到有人室内吸烟的比例从2010年的84.7%下降到2018年的71.9%,在各个场所看到吸烟的比例均有所下降,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.001);女性、45~64岁、教师、医务人员、企业/商业/服务业人员、农村和中部地区人群二手烟暴露情况均有所改善,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。2018年,在各年龄组中,家庭全面禁烟或部分区域允许吸烟的二手烟暴露比例均低于家庭允许吸烟或无禁烟规定;在25~44岁人群中,所在工作场所全面禁烟的二手烟暴露比例低于允许吸烟或无禁烟规定(OR=0.65,95%CI:0.49~0.87),认为0~5类公共场所室内区域不应该允许吸烟的二手烟暴露比例高于8类公共场所(OR=2.13,95%CI:1.35~3.36);在45~64岁人群中,教师(OR=0.37,95%CI:0.17~0.78)、医务人员(OR=0.35,95%CI:0.16~0.76)、农林牧渔水利人员(OR=0.49,95%CI:0.29~0.84)二手烟暴露比例均低于政府/事业单位人员。结论 中国≥15岁非现在吸烟人群二手烟暴露情况整体有所改善,无烟环境建设初现成效,但建设力度还需要进一步加大。要积极倡导无烟家庭建设,加强烟草危害宣传教育,提高非吸烟者拒绝二手烟暴露技巧。
英文摘要:
      Objective To investigate secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-current smokers aged 15 and over and its influencing factors in China in 2010 and 2018.Methods The 2010 and 2018 China Adult Tobacco Surveys used multistage stratified cluster random sampling methods to obtain national representative samples across 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) in China. This study selected non-current smokers aged 15 and over as the research subjects to describe the general demographic characteristics, perceptions of SHS hazards, attitudes towards smoking bans in indoor areas in public places, and SHS exposure and the smoking restriction regulations in different places. The Rao-Scott χ2 test was used to compare the rates, and the unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of SHS exposure. All the subjects in the analysis were weighted based on a complex sampling design. Results Among non-current smokers aged 15 and over, from 2010 to 2018, the percentage of indoor smokers had decreased from 84.7% to 71.9%. The rates of people who saw smoking in various places declined with a statistically significant difference (P<0.001). The exposure to SHS for females, people aged 45-64, teachers, medical staff, workers in enterprises, businesses, waiters, and people who live in rural and central areas declined. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). In 2018, the percentage of SHS exposure for those who reported a comprehensive smoking ban in households or allowed smoking in certain areas was lower than for those who reported allowed or without a smoking ban. Among those aged 25-44, SHS exposure for those who reported complete smoking prohibition in workplaces was lower than those who reported allowed or without smoking prohibition (OR=0.65, 95%CI: 0.49-0.87). The proportion of SHS exposure for those who believe that smoking should not be allowed in indoor areas of 0-5 public places is higher than that smoking should not be allowed in the indoor spaces of 8 public places (OR=2.13, 95%CI: 1.35-3.36). Among people aged 45-64, the proportions of SHS exposure for teachers (OR=0.37, 95%CI: 0.17-0.78) and medical staff (OR=0.35, 95%CI: 0.16-0.76) and staff working in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery, and water conservancy were lower than governmental staff (OR=0.49, 95%CI:0.29-0.84). Conclusions Data from the decreased exposure of Chinese non-current smokers aged 15 and over to SHS suggests the initial achievement through constructing a smoke-free environment, but continued efforts are needed. It is necessary to actively advocate for smoke-free families, strengthen publicity and education on the hazards of tobacco and SHS, and improve the skills of non-smokers in rejecting SHS exposure.
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