文章摘要
史芸萍,高燕琳,王超,刘洋,周滢,虎霄,李伟,李刚.北京市2021年法定传染病流行特征分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2022,43(9):1401-1407
北京市2021年法定传染病流行特征分析
Epidemiological characteristics of notifiable infectious diseases in Beijing,2021
收稿日期:2022-04-01  出版日期:2022-09-09
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20220401-00252
中文关键词: 法定传染病;发病率;流行特征
英文关键词: Notifiable infectious diseases;Morbidity;Epidemiological characteristic
基金项目:北京市疾病预防控制中心/北京市预防医学研究中心科研培育专项(2020-BJYJ-18);北京市自然科学基金(M21024)
作者单位E-mail
史芸萍 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
高燕琳 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
王超 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
刘洋 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
周滢 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
虎霄 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
李伟 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013  
李刚 北京市疾病预防控制中心信息统计中心, 北京 100013 ligang@bjcdc.org 
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情防控政策影响下北京市2021年法定传染病的流行特征,为法定传染病的防控策略提供参考依据。方法 采用描述性流行病学方法对北京市2021年法定传染病发病进行分析,采用R 4.1.2软件进行数据整理和分析,采用ArcGIS 10.8软件进行地图绘制。结果 北京市2021年法定传染病报告发病率为290.51/10万,比2020年下降了43.29%,比2017-2019年的年均发病率下降了71.45%。报告发病率居前5位的病种依次为其他感染性腹泻病、流行性感冒、手足口病、肺结核和梅毒。从传播途径来看,以肠道传染病为主,占北京市发病总数的50.15%(31 898/63 601)。从病原体来看,以病毒类传染病为主,占北京市发病总数的59.63%(25 259/42 356)。北京市法定传染病的实验室诊断率由2017-2019年的年均16.47%(36 289/220 371)提高至2021年的35.36%(22 490/63 601),其中寄生虫类传染病实验室诊断率为83.33%。肠道传染病高发地区为平谷区、密云区和丰台区;自然疫源及虫媒传染病以延庆区、门头沟区、房山区和大兴区为主。结论 2021年北京市法定传染病报告发病率呈下降趋势。法定传染病报告病例的实验室诊断率有所上升,不同病种间实验室诊断率差异性较大,有必要提高病例实验室诊断率。不同传播途径的传染病呈不同的地区分布特点,不同地区在开展传染病防控工作时应有所侧重。
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the epidemiological characteristics of notifiable infectious diseases reported in Beijing in 2021 under the influence of the novel coronavirus pneumonia epidemic prevention and control policy,and provide reference evidence for the prevention and control of notifiable infectious diseases.Methods Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the morbidity of notifiable infectious diseases reported in Beijing in 2021,with software R 4.1.2 for data process and ArcGIS 10.8 for visualization.Results The morbidity of notifiable infectious diseases in Beijing in 2021 was 290.51/100 000,a decrease of 43.29% compared with 2020 and a decrease of 71.45% compared with the average during 2017-2019.The top 5 reported diseases with high morbidity were other infectious diarrhea,influenza,hand foot and mouth disease,pulmonary tuberculosis and syphilis.From the perspective of transmission route,intestinal infectious diseases were the main diseases,accounting for 50.15%(31 898/63 601) of the total cases.From the perspective of pathogens,viral infectious diseases were the main diseases,accounting for 59.63%(25 259/42 356) of the total cases.The laboratory diagnosis rate of notifiable infectious diseases reported in Beijing increased from the average of 16.47%(36 289/220 371) during 2017-2019 to 35.36%(22 490/63 601) in 2021.The laboratory diagnosis rate of parasitic infectious diseases was 83.33%.The districts with high incidence of intestinal infectious diseases were Pinggu,Miyun and Fengtai;Natural foci and insect borne infectious diseases were mainly reported in Yanqing,Mentougou,Fangshan and Daxing.Conclusion The morbidity of notifiable infectious diseases in Beijing in 2021 showed a decrease trend.The laboratory confirmation rate of reported notifiable infectious disease cases increased,and there were great differences in the laboratory confirmation rate among different diseases.It is very necessary to improve the laboratory confirmation rate of the cases.The diseases with different transmission routes showed different geographical distributions.It is necessary to conduct the targeted prevention and control of infectious diseases in different areas.
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