文章摘要
范思萌,彭质斌,李丹,曲凯,苗雨露,杨孝坤,赵宏婷,郑建东,秦颖,张彦平,冯子健.中国31个省份18岁以下新型冠状病毒本土感染者的流行特征分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2023,44(2):184-189
中国31个省份18岁以下新型冠状病毒本土感染者的流行特征分析
Epidemiological characteristics of indigenous 2019-nCoV infection in population under 18 years old in China
收稿日期:2022-12-31  出版日期:2023-02-15
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20221129-01007
中文关键词: 新型冠状病毒  未成年人  流行病学特征
英文关键词: 2019-nCoV  Minor  Epidemiological characteristic
基金项目:公共卫生应急反应机制运行项目(131031001000210001);国家重点研发计划(2020YFA0708100);首都卫生发展科研专项(2022-4G-4222)
作者单位E-mail
范思萌 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
彭质斌 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
李丹 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
曲凯 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
苗雨露 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
杨孝坤 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
赵宏婷 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
郑建东 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
秦颖 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
张彦平 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处, 北京 102206  
冯子健 中国疾病预防控制中心, 北京 102206 fengzj@chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 描述我国31个省份<18岁新型冠状病毒(新冠病毒)本土感染者的流行特征,为优化新冠病毒感染疫情防控措施提供参考。方法 研究对象为2020年4月29日至2022年5月31日,中国传染病信息报告管理系统中所有年龄<18岁的新冠病毒本土感染者。对感染者的时间、地区、人群分布、临床严重程度以及确诊病例发病至确诊时间间隔进行分析,并分析不同流行阶段感染者的流行特征。结果 研究期间,我国共报告63 916例<18岁新冠病毒本土感染者;其中,确诊病例14 777例(23.12%),无症状感染者49 139例(76.88%)。月报告感染者数在2022年4月达到高峰,为40 864例。感染者分布在30个省份的187个地级及以上城市,其中,上海市(41 562例)、长春市(5 753例)和吉林市(3 888例)占全国报告总数的80.11%(51 203/63 916)。男性占54.34%;感染者年龄MQ1Q3)为10(5,14)岁,57.73%的感染者集中在6~15岁;职业分布以学生为主(56.14%)。确诊病例的发病至确诊时间MQ1Q3)为1(0,2)d。报告无症状感染占76.88%,轻型占21.78%,普通型和重型分别占1.32%和0.02%,无危重型和死亡病例;<1岁年龄组的重型/危重型占比(0.12%)高于其他年龄组。在不同流行阶段中,以Omicron变异株流行为主阶段的无症状感染占比最高(78.43%)。结论 我国31个省份<18岁本土感染者主要为6~15岁中小学生,以无症状感染和轻型为主,临床严重程度较低;仍需加强对低年龄组感染者的监测,强化学龄儿童的疫情防控。
英文摘要:
      Objective To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of indigenous 2019-nCoV infection in population under 18 years old in 31 provinces of China, and provide evidence for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Method Demographic and epidemiologic information of children and adolescents with 2019-nCoV infection reported in China between April 29, 2020 and May 31, 2022 were collected from China's Disease Prevention and Control Information System. We analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of the 2019-nCoV infection in children and adolescents and compared the epidemiological characteristics of the cases at different epidemic stages. Result A total of 63 916 indigenous 2019-nCoV infection cases in children and adolescents were reported in China from April 29, 2020 to May 31, 2022, in which 14 777 (23.12%) were confirmed cases and 49 139 (76.88%) were asymptomatic cases. An obvious incidence peak (40 864 cases) was observed in April, 2022, and two sub-peaks were observed in January, 2020 and January, 2021, respectively. The 2019-nCoV infection cases occurred in 187 cities above prefecture level in 30 provinces, the cases reported in Shanghai (41 562 cases), Changchun (5 753 cases) and Jilin (3 888 cases) accounted for 80.11% of the total cases (51 203/63 916). The proportion of the cases in males was 54.34%. The age of the cases, M (Q1, Q3) was 10 (5, 14) years, and 57.73% of the cases were 6-15 years old. The cases in students accounted for the highest proportion (56.14%). The interval between illness onset and diagnosis of confirmed cases, M (Q1,Q3) was 1 (0, 2) days. Among the 2019-nCoV infection cases in children and adolescents, 76.88% were asymptomatic, 21.78% were mild ones, 1.32% were moderately severe ones, 0.02% were severe ones, and there were no critical cases and deaths. Compared with other age groups, the proportion of severe or critical cases was higher in children aged <1 year (0.12%). The proportion of asymptomatic infections was highest in Omicron variant epidemic (78.43%). Conclusion The 2019-nCoV infection cases in children and adolescents aged <18 years in 31 provinces in China were mainly primary and secondary school students aged 6-15 years. Most cases were asymptomatic and mild ones with low clinical severity. It is still necessary to strengthen the surveillance for 2019-nCoV infection in children and adolescents to improve the prevention and control of COVID-19 in school age children.
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