文章摘要
高玺玉,汤巧雨,刘凤凤,宋杨,张志杰,常昭瑞.2004-2020年中国伤寒/副伤寒流行病学特征分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2023,44(5):743-750
2004-2020年中国伤寒/副伤寒流行病学特征分析
Epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China, 2004-2020
收稿日期:2022-11-16  出版日期:2023-05-13
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20221116-00977
中文关键词: 伤寒  副伤寒  流行特征  热点分析
英文关键词: Typhoid fever  Paratyphoid fever  Epidemiological characteristic  Hotspot analysis
基金项目:2018年三峡库区消落区监测经费;2018年三峡经费(三峡人群健康监测经费);公共卫生应急反应机制运行项目(102393220020010000017)
作者单位E-mail
高玺玉 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处/传染病监测预警重点实验室, 北京 102206  
汤巧雨 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处/传染病监测预警重点实验室, 北京 102206  
刘凤凤 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处/传染病监测预警重点实验室, 北京 102206  
宋杨 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处/传染病监测预警重点实验室, 北京 102206  
张志杰 复旦大学公共卫生学院流行病学与卫生统计教研室, 上海 200032  
常昭瑞 中国疾病预防控制中心传染病管理处/传染病监测预警重点实验室, 北京 102206 changzr@chinacdc.cn 
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中文摘要:
      目的 分析2004-2020年我国伤寒/副伤寒发病趋势和流行病学特征,探索我国伤寒/副伤寒的高发人群和热点区域,为制定针对性的防控措施提供科学依据。方法 通过中国疾病预防控制信息系统传染病报告信息系统下载2004-2020年全国伤寒/副伤寒监测数据,采用描述性流行病学方法和空间分析方法进行分析。结果 2004-2020年全国共报告伤寒病例202 991例,男女性别比为1.18∶1,发病人群以20~59岁中青年为主(53.60%)。伤寒发病率由2004年的2.54/10万下降至2020年的0.38/10万;2011年起,伤寒<3岁年龄组发病率均高于其他年龄组,发病率为1.13/10万~2.78/10万。<3岁年龄组和≥60岁年龄组发病占比逐年升高,分别由2004年的3.48%和6.46%上升至2020年的15.59%和19.34%。伤寒热点区域持续存在于云南省、贵州省、广西壮族自治区和四川省,并逐步扩大至广东省、湖南省、江西省和福建省。2004-2020年共报告副伤寒病例86 226例,男女性别比为1.21∶1,发病人群以20~59岁中青年为主(59.80%)。副伤寒发病率由2004年的1.26/10万下降至2020年的0.12/10万。2007年起,副伤寒<3岁年龄组发病率均高于其他年龄组,发病率为0.57/10万~1.19/10万。<3岁年龄组和≥60岁年龄组发病占比逐年升高,分别由2004年的1.48%和4.52%上升至2020年的30.92%和22.28%。副伤寒热点区域由云南省、贵州省、四川省和广西壮族自治区向东扩散至广东省、湖南省、江西省。结论 我国伤寒/副伤寒持续呈低流行水平,近年的发病率明显下降;发病热点区域主要集中在云南省、贵州省、广西壮族自治区和四川省,并向东部地区扩散,西南地区是防控的重点;<3岁婴幼儿和≥60岁老年人需重点关注。
英文摘要:
      Objective To analyze the incidence trend and epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China from 2004 to 2020, understand the high-incidence population and hotspot areas, and provide evidences to develop more targeted prevention and control measures. Methods The descriptive epidemiological method and spatial analysis method were applied to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China during this period by using the surveillance data collected from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting System of Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Results A total of 202 991 cases of typhoid fever were reported in China from 2004 to 2020. More cases occurred in men than in women (sex ratio: 1.18∶1). Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (53.60%). The incidence rate of typhoid fever decreased from 2.54/100 000 in 2004 to 0.38/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate was reported in young children aged <3 years after 2011, ranging from 1.13/100 000 to 2.78/100 000, and during this period the proportion of cases in this age group increased from 3.48% to 15.59%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 6.46% in 2004 to 19.34% in 2020. The hotspot areas existed in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces and expanded to Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Fujian Provinces. A total of 86 226 paratyphoid fever cases were reported from 2004 to 2020, the male to female ratio of the cases was 1.21∶1. Most cases were reported in adults aged 20-59 years (59.80%). The incidence rate of paratyphoid fever decreased from 1.26/100 000 in 2004 to 0.12/100 000 in 2020. The highest incidence rate of paratyphoid fever was in young children aged <3 years after 2007, ranging from 0.57/100 000 to 1.19/100 000, and during this period the proportion of the cases in this age group increased from 1.48% to 30.92%. The proportion of the cases in the elderly aged ≥60 years increased from 4.52% in 2004 to 22.28% in 2020. The hotspot areas expanded to the east, including Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces, from Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Guangxi Provinces. Conclusions The results showed a low level of incidence of typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever in China with a trend of decreasing per year. The hotspots were mainly in the of Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi and Sichuan Provinces, with an expanding trend to eastern China. It is necessary to strengthen the typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever prevention and control in southwestern China, among young children aged <3 years and the elderly aged ≥60 years.
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