文章摘要
吴赤蓬,王声湧.1950~1994年我国火灾的流行病学分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,1999,20(3):147-150
1950~1994年我国火灾的流行病学分析
Epidemiological analysis of the fires happened in China from 1950 to 1994
收稿日期:1998-08-10  出版日期:2014-09-16
DOI:
中文关键词: 火灾;伤害
英文关键词: Fire;Injury
基金项目:国务院侨务办公室重点科研基金;广东省卫生厅科研基金
作者单位
吴赤蓬 暨南大学医学院预防医学教研室, 广州 510632 
王声湧 暨南大学医学院预防医学教研室, 广州 510632 
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中文摘要:
      目的分析火灾的危险因素,探讨火灾的防范措施,预防和控制火灾对人所造成的伤害。方法采用历史回顾法对我国1950年至1994年间火灾发生的流行病学特征以及起火原因进行了描述性研究。结果1950~1994年间我国共发生了2905504次火灾,平均每年约有64567次火灾,死亡3432人,烧伤6726人。70年代中期以来,火灾年平均伤亡率有所下降,1990年后又有上升趋势。火灾造成的经济损失逐年大幅度上升,1994年火灾损失近13亿元,次均损失比1990年增长了226.8%。89.4%的火灾系人为因素所致。近10年来,四川、云南、江苏、浙江和广东等地的火灾发生数和伤亡人数最多,伤亡人数和经济损失都以广东省独占鳌头。对全国17个部门火灾情况的分析结果表明,除森林火灾之外,农村和城市居民区的火灾发生数最多(占24%),人员伤亡占28.4%。冬季火灾较频繁,夏季火灾较少。结论我国火灾在总体水平上并未得到有效控制。
英文摘要:
      Objective Approaching the harmful factors and the preventive steps of fires for controlling and preventing fires from harming people .Method Descriptive analy sis w as used to review 2 905 504 fires-cases in China from 1950 to 1994.Results Onaverage , there were 3 432 people died and 6 726 injured in 64 567 fires per year .From the middle of 70' s, the means o f injured and death rates decreased slightly , but have gone up a little after 80' s.T he economical loss has risen g reatly year after year , reaching the maximum of 1 .3 billion Yuan (RMB)in 1994 .The loss of a fire case in 1994 w as mo re than tw ice than that in 1990 .89 .4 % fires were caused by man' s faults.The fire cases in Sichuan , Yunnan, Jiangshu, Zhejiang and Guangdo ng Provinces were more serious than the average , of which Guangdong w as the w orst .Data from 17 departments show ed tha t, the fire frequency in residential quarters of cities and countryside were highest (24%), and the number of injury and death accounted for 28.4%.T he fire happens frequently in winter , and least in summer .Conclusions The problem caused by accounted fire has not been contro lled effectively .
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