文章摘要
潘建平,杨子尼,任旭红,王桂香,王惠珊,席卫平,潘玉泉,马葆靖,石淑华,弋花妮,傅平,古桂雄,静进,俞红,李琼昭,李威,喻贵清,马西,武雅俐,黎海芪.中国部分城市3~6岁儿童忽视状况及影响因素分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2005,26(4):258-262
中国部分城市3~6岁儿童忽视状况及影响因素分析
Study on the current situation and influential factors of child neglect among aged 3-6 year-olds in the urban areas of China
收稿日期:2004-03-24  出版日期:2014-09-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 忽视  儿童  影响因素
英文关键词: Neglect  child  Influential factors
基金项目:
作者单位
潘建平 710061 西安交通大学医学院公共卫生系
 
杨子尼 解放军第一四五医院
 
任旭红 西安交通大学第一医院妇幼中心
 
王桂香 辽宁省疾病预防控制中心
 
王惠珊 吉林大学第二医院妇幼系
 
席卫平 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心
 
潘玉泉 山西省妇幼保健院
 
马葆靖 阳泉市妇幼保健院
 
石淑华 郑州大学第三医院儿童保健科
 
弋花妮 华中科技大学同济公共卫生学院儿少卫生与妇幼保健系
 
傅平 弋济南市妇幼保健院
 
古桂雄 青岛市妇女儿童医疗保健中心
 
静进 苏州大学附属儿童医院儿童保健科
 
俞红 中山大学公共卫生学院妇幼系佛山市妇幼保健院
 
李琼昭 海南省妇幼保健院
 
李威 新疆煤矿总医院
 
喻贵清 贵州省妇幼保健所
 
马西 陕西省妇幼保健院
 
武雅俐 宝鸡市妇幼保健院
 
黎海芪 重庆医科大学儿童医院 
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中文摘要:
      目的了解中国城市儿童忽视现状,明确影响儿童忽视的主要危险因素。方法采用“中国3~6岁城区儿童忽视常模”中规定的量表和评价方法,对全国25个城市采用多阶段分层整群抽样方法,共调查1163例3~6岁儿童,其中男童占49.6%,少数民族占4.5%。分别计算不同地区、年龄、性别、忽视类型(身体、情感、教育、医疗、安全等)的忽视分值、忽视率与忽视度。忽视危险因素的多因素分析分别采用Binarylogistic回归分析和多元线性逐步回归分析方法。结果(1)3~6岁城区儿童总忽视率为28.0%,各年龄组间差异无统计学意义(χ2=4.798,P>0.05);忽视度为42.2,各年龄组间差异无统计学意义(F=0.988,P>0.05);男、女儿童忽视率分别为32.6%和23.7%(χ2=6.585,P<0.05),忽视度分别为42.7和41.8(F=2.502,P>0.05);在儿童忽视的5种类型中,忽视度为39.4~43.4,忽视率为5.1%~12.9%,除身体忽视外,其他4种类型的发生率性别间差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05);所有儿童均以单项(即只在5种忽视类型的任何一种)受忽视为主(发生率16.5%,构成比58.9%)。在不同类型结构的家庭中,以单亲家庭中的儿童受忽视率最高(42.9%),核心家庭次之,而“三世同堂”家庭中儿童受忽视率最低(25.5%)。无论以年龄或性别分组,儿童均为在安全、医疗方面受到的忽视较轻,而在身体、情感、安全方面受到的忽视较多.(2)经单因素x2检验,筛选出的影响儿童忽视的危险因素有父母亲文化程度、父母亲职业、近一年父母收入减少等.(3)Binary logistic回归分析显示,影响儿童受到忽视的因素有父亲文化程度、儿童性别、母亲职业等.(4)多元线性逐步回归分析显示,影响儿童忽视度的因素有家庭类型、家庭供养的人口、父母与儿童的关系等.结论中国3~6岁城区儿童受忽视的频率和强度均较大.各年龄儿童受到忽视的强度(忽视度)和频度(忽视率)基本相同.男、女儿童受到忽视的强度基本相同,但男童受到忽视的比率较女童高.儿童在安全、医疗方面受到的忽视较轻,而在身体、情感、安全方面受到的忽视较多;所有儿童均以单项受忽视为主;在不同类型结构的家庭中,以单亲家庭中的儿童受忽视率最高.无论单因素或多因素分析,影响儿童忽视的危险因素主要有父母亲文化程度、父母亲职业、家庭类型、儿童性别、母亲年龄、人均住房面积、家庭收入、家庭供养的人口等.与国外学者研究结果基本一致.
英文摘要:
      Objective Children aged 3-6 years in the urban areas of China were surveyed for the first time to find out the state of child neglect (CN) as well as the major relevant risk factors so as to provide evidence for developing intervention measures. Methods 1163 children ( of whom 49.6 % were males and 4.5 % were minority nationality) were randomly sampled under multistage stratification, from 25 cities which representating 15 provinces of China. Based on the Child Neglect Norms used by China, prevalence of CN was idenfied and SPSS-Windows 11.0 was employed for statistical analysis. Scores, frequency/ degrees, age, sex and 5 types (physical, emotional, educational, medical and safety) of CN on every group of the regions, were calculated. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through Binary Logistic Regression and multiple linear regression to determine the relevant risk factors. Results (1)The average degree of CN for the 3-6 year-olds was 42.2, with its prevalence as 28.0 %. Degrees of CN for the groups of 3,4,5, 6- year-olds were 41.7, 42.2, 42.1 and 43.1 ( F= 0.988, P 0.05 ), with frequencies of 25.0 %, 25.3 %, 27.9 % and 35.4 %( χ2= 4.798, P 0.05 ), respectively. Degrees for CN in males and females were 42.7 and 41.8 ( F= 2.502, P 0.05 ) with the frequencies as 32.6 % and 23.7 % ( χ2= 6.585, P 0.05 ), respectively. Degrees of CN for the five types were 39.4- 43.4 with the frequencies as 5.1%- 12.9 %, respectively. No significant difference was found in the frequency of the types (with an exception on 'physical neglect') between males and females ( P 0.05 ).The highest frequency ( 42.9 %) of CN was seen in the single-parent families and the lowest in large family with three generations( 25.5 %). (2)According to monofactorial χ2 test, the possible risk factors of CN would include: educational background, occupation and decrease of income of the parents during last year, etc. (3)Binary Logistic regression analysis showed that the influential factors to the occurrence of CN would include: father's educational background, sex of the child and mother's occupation, etc. (4)Multiple linear regression showed that the influential factors to the degree of CN were: family structure, number of supporting family members, relationship between parents and children, etc. Conclusion The degree and frequency of CN among children aged 3 to 6 in the urban areas of China were high but similar among the four age groups. Male children had a higher frequency of neglect than females, but with similar degree. Children in single-parent families had the highest frequency. The major influential factors of CN would include: educational background, occupation, family structure, family income of the parents which were similar to the results reported from foreign literature.
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