文章摘要
王晓华,曲成毅,施继良,刘钢,张致祥,杨小玲,孙喜斌,孙琳,郑远远,刘熙朴,邵翠霞,滕红红,王燕.北京市0~6岁儿童五类残疾现状和影响因素调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2005,26(8):569-573
北京市0~6岁儿童五类残疾现状和影响因素调查
A cross-sectional study on the prevalence and risk factors of disabilities in aged 0-6 years children in Beijing, China
收稿日期:2004-11-18  出版日期:2014-09-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 残疾;儿童;现况调查
英文关键词: Disability;Children;Cross-sectional study
基金项目:北京市政府专项基金资助项目(京政办发〔2004〕3号)
作者单位E-mail
王晓华 北京, 首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院北京妇幼保健院保健部 100006  
曲成毅 山西医科大学公共 卫生学院流行病 学教研室 quc-y@public.ty.sx.cn 
施继良 北京市残疾人联合会康复部  
刘钢 北京市卫生局妇幼处  
张致祥 北京大学医学部第一附属医院儿科, 第六附属医院儿科  
杨小玲 北京大学医学部第一附属医院儿科, 第六附属医院儿科  
孙喜斌 中国聋儿康复研究中心  
孙琳 北京儿童医院骨科  
郑远远 北京眼科研究所  
刘熙朴 北京圣康华眼科医院  
邵翠霞 北京市残疾人康复服务指导中心社区指导部  
滕红红 北京, 首都医科大学附属北京妇产医院北京妇幼保健院保健部 100006  
王燕 北京大学医学部公共卫生学院儿少与妇幼卫生系  
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中文摘要:
      目的研究北京市0~6岁儿童5类残疾(听力、视力、肢体、智力、精神)的流行现状和影响因素。方法对居住在北京市半年以上、具有北京市户口的0~6岁儿童进行容量比例概率分层整群抽样调查,调查程序为二阶段筛查,共调查28738名儿童;评定标准为调查专家组编写的“0~6岁儿童残疾评定标准”。结果总残疾现患率为11.45‰,听力和精神专业假阴性率分别为0.14‰和0.80‰,以此校正后的总残疾现患率为12.19‰,其中各类残疾现患率由高到低顺序依次为:智力9.31‰、肢体2.12‰、精神1.53‰(校正前0.73‰)、听力1.04‰(校正前0.91‰)、视力0.73‰。多因素分析结果显示,男童、居住在城市、年龄大、母亲文化程度低、母亲从事非脑力劳动、家庭人均月收人低是儿童残疾的危险因素,可疑致残因素仍以产前为主。结论北京市0~6岁儿童残疾总现患率较1987年全国抽样调查下降了16.36%,其中听力下降最为明显;北京市有必要建立儿童残疾的监测系统,亟需为儿童残疾重新定义、建立标准。
英文摘要:
      Objective To explore the epidemiological status of disabilities on vision impairment(VI), hearing loss(HL), mental retardation(MR), autism spectrum disorder(ASD) and motor disorder(MD) in aged 0-6 years old children in Beijing. Methods A total of 28 738children under 7 years old were recruited from permanent residents of Beijing City by 2-phase cluster sampling. The screening procedure was 2-phase, and the diagnosis criteria were developed by the experts group. Results The overall disability rate was 11.45‰( 95%CI: 10.22- 12.68). The false negative rates in HL and ASD were 0.14‰, 0.80‰, respectively, with a adjusted overall rate of 12.19‰. The prevalence rates of different kind disabilities from high to low were MR 9.31‰, MD 2.12‰, ASD 1.53‰( 0.73‰ before adjusted), HL 1.04‰( 0.91‰ before adjusted) VI 0.73‰. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the possible non-biological risk factors for those disabilities were being male, living in city area, advancing age, mother with low education, mother engaged in labor work, and family with low income. It was primarily ( 49.62%) those prenatal factors other them the known suspected factors that causing disabilities. Conclusions Compared with data from a countrywide study in 1987, the overall disability rate had a mild decrease( 16.36%) with the most ( 56.85%) appeared in HL. It is indispensable to establish a disabilities surveillance program for the early recognition and intervention of children with disabilities. It is also crucial to clarify a disability definition for children combined with their characteristics of growth and development. We strongly recommended in developing a new definition on children' disabilities and establishing new criteria according to the contents of developmental disabilities of Center for Disease Control, USA.
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