文章摘要
张渝疆,戴翔,阿不力米提,蒋卫,阿不力克木,王信惠,布仁明德,热娜,李冰,雷刚,孟卫卫,木合塔尔,张晓兵,王启国,雒涛,郭荣,王忠,唐建国,刘成全,阿扎提,叶瑞玉,于心,曹汉礼.准噶尔盆地鼠疫调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2008,29(2):136-144
准噶尔盆地鼠疫调查
Study on the situation of plague in Junggar Basin of China
收稿日期:2007-11-08  出版日期:2014-09-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 鼠疫;自然疫源地;准噶尔盆地
英文关键词: Plague;Investigation;Junggar Basin
基金项目:NIH(5R01AI63457-3)和美国HEISER基金会资助
作者单位
张渝疆  
戴翔  
阿不力米提  
蒋卫  
阿不力克木  
王信惠  
布仁明德  
热娜  
李冰  
雷刚  
孟卫卫  
木合塔尔 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
张晓兵 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
王启国 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
雒涛 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
郭荣 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
王忠 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
唐建国 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
刘成全 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
阿扎提 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
叶瑞玉 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
于心 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
曹汉礼 
新疆维吾尔自治区疾病预防控制中心, 乌鲁木齐 830002
 
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中文摘要:
      目的 掌握准噶尔盆地鼠疫疫源地的分布、动物区系组成、宿主动物及其体外寄生蚤类的种群结构以及动物鼠疫的流行动态.方法 采用生态学研究方法、鼠疫血清学和病原学检验方法以及生物化学技术对准噶尔盆地进行鼠疫流行病学调查和研究.结果 准噶尔盆地共有小型哺乳动物7科11属17种,其中啮齿动物13种,啮齿动物体外寄生蚤类8科10属19种;大沙鼠洞群平均覆盖率22.5%,洞群平均密度15.9个/hm2,洞群平均栖息率为70.2%;在大沙鼠洞群鼠类群落中,大沙鼠占总捕获数的72.9%,子午沙鼠占24.5%;夜行鼠类群落中,子午沙鼠占总捕获数的64.0%,三趾跳鼠占15.1%.准噶尔荒漠鼠类群落中大沙鼠的染蚤率最高,为84.9%;染蚤种类有16种,总蚤指数为8.58,以簇鬃客蚤为优势种.准噶尔荒漠啮齿动物血清鼠疫F1抗体平均阳性率5.5%.其中,大沙鼠阳性率12.1%,占阳性总血清的94.3%,子午沙鼠和三趾跳鼠血清阳性率分别为0.7%和0.9%;自大沙鼠、子午沙鼠及其体外寄生蚤--臀突客蚤、同形客蚤指名亚种、长吻角头蚤和簇鬃客蚤共分离出鼠疫菌26株,其中自大沙鼠及其体外寄生蚤分离出鼠疫菌24株,占92.3%;该区域鼠疫菌的生化特性是麦芽糖、阿胶糖、甘油阳性,鼠李糖和脱氮阴性,对小白鼠强毒.结论 准噶尔盆地鼠疫疫源地涉及整个准噶尔区域,有12个县(市)发生了动物鼠疫流行,确定克拉玛依、博乐、吉木萨尔和奇台4个县(市)为鼠疫疫源县(市).疫源地动物、媒介组成复杂,生态系统稳定,主要宿主动物为大沙鼠,鼠疫菌生化型属中世纪型,为中国新类型的鼠疫自然疫源地.
英文摘要:
      objective To understand the distribution, fauna, population structure of host animals and their parasitic fleas as well as popular dynamic of animal plague of natural plague foci in Junggar Basin.Methods Sample materials and data of animals and vector insects were collected using ecological methods and the population structures were analyzed statistically.F1 antibody of Yersinia pesos in rodents'serum and organ suspension was detected by means of IHA while the pathogen of Y.pesos in rodents and vector insects was detected by means of aetiological detections and the isolated Y.pestis was detected using biochemical methods.Results The small mammals which were found in Junggar Basin belonged to 17 species of 11 genera 7 families.Of them, 13 species of rodents were included whose parasitic fleas belonged to 19 species of 10 genera 8 families.The average coverage of Rhombomys opimus hole-community was 22.5 % in Junggar Basin with the average density of R.opimus hole-community was 15.9/hm2 and the average rate of habitat of the hole-community was 70.290.In the R.opimus community, the average density of rodents was 3.1 / hole-community, and 34.4/hm2 in the nature plague foci.In the population structure of the hole-community of R.opimus,R.opimus accounted for 72.9% in the total captured rodents, Meriones meridianus was 24,5 % while the others were 2.6.In the nocturnal community of rodents,Mmeridianus accounted for 64.0% in total captured rodents, Dipus sagitta was I5.1%, M.erythrourns was 7.5%and the others were 13.4 96.In the rodents community of Junggar Basin, the rate of R.opimus with fleas was 84.9%,which was the highest, followed by M.tamariscirtus, Euchoreutes naso and M.erythrourns,with the rates as 71.4%,66.706 and 62.796 respectively: The rate of M.meridianus with fleas was 38.3 }.There were 16 species of parasitic fleas in R.opzmus,with the total flea index as 8.58 and the dominant species was Xenopsylla skrjabini.There were I7 and 16 kinds of fleas in M.erythrourns and M.meridianus respectively with the total flea index were 1.59 and 1.15,with dominant fleas were Nosopsyllus laeviceps and X.skrjabiui.The serum and organ suspension of 3179 rodents which belonged to 12 species were detected by means of IHA, of them 774 samples were p}itive and the positive rate was 5.5%.There were 1356 samples of R.opimus in these materials, and 164 were positive, accounted for 12.1%The samples of Mmeridianus were 1255,with 9 positive, accounted for 0.7%.The samples of D.sagitta were 116 with 1 positive and the rate was 0.9.The samples of other rodents were 452 but were all negative.There were in total 2975 organs collected from rodents, when detected by methods of isolated of Y.pesos.15 strains of Y.pesos were isolated from 1243 R.opimus,and 2 strains isolated from 1230 M.meridianus.A total number of 11 647 fleas from rodents were detected by methods of isolated of Y.pesos in which 1 strain of Y.pesos was isolated from 4713 X.skrjabeni,and 6 were isolated from 2101 Xenopsylla minax,l from 328 Xenopsylla conformis conformis and 1 from 250 Echidnophaga oschanini.Among the other 4255 fleas, none was isolated.The biochemical properties of these Y.pesos which isolated from Junggar Basin were positive of Maltose, Ejiao sugar and Glycerol, and negative of Rhamnose and Nitrogen, which were all strongly poisonous to mouse.Conclusion The natural plague foci in Junggar Basin spread all over the whole Junggar Basin.There were animal plague cases found in 12 counties (cites) while Karamy, Sole, Jimusaer and Qitai were confirmed as plague foci counties(cities).Animals and vector insects of the foci were complicated but the ecological system was stable.R.opimus was recognized as the dominant host animal and its biochemical type belonged to the Middle Ages, suggesting that the foci was a new type of natural plague foci.belonged to the Middle Ages, suggesting that the foci was a new type of natural plague foci.
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