文章摘要
崔颖,杨丽,赵艳霞,巫琦,田晓波.中国部分农村地区3岁以下儿童营养状况及相关因素研究[J].中华流行病学杂志,2008,29(3):230-234
中国部分农村地区3岁以下儿童营养状况及相关因素研究
Study on status of nutrition in children under three years old in rural area in China
收稿日期:2007-06-21  出版日期:2014-09-15
DOI:
中文关键词: 营养状况;患病率;影响因素;儿童
英文关键词: Nutrition status;Prevalence;Influence factors;Children
基金项目:联合国儿童基金会资助项目(UNICEF/CHINA YH101)
作者单位
崔颖 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心 100013 北京 
杨丽 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心 100013 北京 
赵艳霞 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心 100013 北京 
巫琦 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心 100013 北京 
田晓波 中国疾病预防控制中心妇幼保健中心 100013 北京 
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解中国中西部10省农村地区3岁以下儿童的营养状况及其相关影响因素.方法 在10省46个项目县地区采用人口比例(PPS)抽样方法,对230个乡920个村的13 532名3岁以下儿童的营养状况进行了问卷调查和体格发育检测.以年龄别身高(HA)、年龄别体重(wA)和身高别体重(WH)作为衡量儿童营养状况的指标.采用Epi Data 3.02软件建立数据库,采用SPSS 11.5软件进行统计分析.结果 项目地区3岁以下儿童生长迟缓(HAZ<-2)、低体重(WAZ<-2)和消瘦(WHZ<-2)的患病率分别为12.4%、11.8%和5.7%,其中男童高于女童,少数民族高于汉族,西部地区高于东部和北部地区.汉族儿童低体重和生长迟缓的患病率分别为9.5%和9.8%,而少数民族儿童低体重和生长迟缓的患病率分别为15.6%和16.5%,明显高于汉族儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).营养不良患病率有随年龄上升趋势,生长迟缓、低体重和消瘦的患病率分别在24月龄、15~30月龄和15月龄达到峰值.HA、WA和WH的Z值分布较NCHS/WHO标准分别向左偏移了0.59、0.60和0.26个单位(P<0.01),提示儿童整体营养状况均受到不同程度的影响.低体重儿童2周腹泻和感冒的患病率为15.9%和13.5%,分别高于正常体重儿童,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).多因素非条件logisitic回归分析显示,6月龄以下儿童生长迟缓主要与母亲是否在家照顾有关;6月龄以上儿童生长迟缓与年龄、性别、民族、排行、母亲文化程度、单独做饭和地区等因素有关;6月龄以上儿童低体重受年龄、民族、母亲文化程度、6~8月龄是否添加鸡蛋和地区等因素的影响.结论 中国中西部农村地区3岁以下儿童的营养不良患病率有随年龄上升的趋势;地区间营养不良患病率差异明显.
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the nutrition status of children under three years in rural area of western China and to explore the influencing factors so as to provide reasonable suggestions for policy making. Methods Use PPS sampling method to investigate the 13 532 children under three years old. Height and weight were used as nutritional indexes. Results The prevalence of stunting ( height for age Z- score<一2),underweight(weight for age Z-score<一2)and wasting(weight for height Z-score<一2) were 12. 4 %,11.8% and 5.7%respectively. Boys, minority and the children from western China had higher prevalence rate. The prevalence rates of the Han nationality children's underweight and stunting were 9. 5 % and 9. 8 %, but these rates of the minority children were 15. 6 % and 16.5%respectively, which were obviously higher than the Han ethnicity children with significant differences between them (PG0.01).The prevalence of malnutrition was rising with age and the peak age of stunting, underweight and wasting appeared at 21 months, 12 months and 15 months, respectively. Compared with growth reference of NCHS/WHO,the HAZ,WAZ and WHZ left moved 0.59,0.60 and 0.26 units which indicated the whole nutritional status of children from program area impaired to some extent. Underweight inclined to have higher two-week prevalence rates of diarrhea and flu than in thenormal children,achieving 15.9% and 13.50}6,but with significant differences between them (P<0.01). We administered non-conditional logistic regression analysis to identify the influencing factors of malnutrition. Under-6-month children who were not taken care by their mothers showed higher risk of stunting. Over-6-month children stunting had significant relationship with age, gender, sibling order, nationality,maternal educational level, special cooking for children and residential region. Underweight of over-6-month children significantly related to age, nationality, and maternal educational level, yolk supply during 6-8 month old and living region. Conclusion Malnutrition was really prevalent among children in China,sueeestine that intervention should be done accordine to the influencine factors.
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