文章摘要
李志华,尹卫青,马红,刘维量,李沙沙,张孟林,储文杰,安邦.山东省部分地区11902 名农村居民农业伤害调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2011,32(8):768-772
山东省部分地区11902 名农村居民农业伤害调查
A survey on the agricultural profession-related injuries among 11 902 rural residents in Shandong province
收稿日期:2011-03-09  出版日期:2014-09-17
DOI:
中文关键词: 农业伤害;发生率;现场调查
英文关键词: Agricultural injury;Incidence rate;Field investigation
基金项目:国家"十五"科技攻关课题(2004BA720A31)
作者单位E-mail
李志华 261053 潍坊医学院公共卫生学院流行病学教研室(李志华、刘维量) lizhihua@wfmc.edu.cn 
尹卫青 东营市盐窝镇卫生院(尹卫青)  
马红 东营市河口区疾病预防控制中心(马红)  
刘维量 261053 潍坊医学院公共卫生学院流行病学教研室(李志华、刘维量)  
李沙沙 潍坊医学院学生(李沙沙、张孟林、储文杰、安邦)  
张孟林 潍坊医学院学生(李沙沙、张孟林、储文杰、安邦)  
储文杰 潍坊医学院学生(李沙沙、张孟林、储文杰、安邦)  
安邦 潍坊医学院学生(李沙沙、张孟林、储文杰、安邦)  
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中文摘要:
      目的<\b>了解山东省农村居民农业伤害现况。方法采用多阶段整群抽样方法,随机抽取20 个行政村从事农业生产及相关活动的人员为调查对象。2009 年5 月1 日至2010 年4 月30日分4 次进村入户面对面访问,现场填写调查问卷,调查农业伤害发生情况。采用SPSS 13.0 软件录入数据和统计分析。结果共调查11 902 人,有837 人在1 年中曾遭受≥1 次农业伤害,粗发生率为7.03%,标化发生率为7.36%,其中男性发生率(9.01%)高于女性(4.10%),χ2=105.53,P=0.000。以≤14 岁年龄组发生率较高(9.50%),χ2=9.70,P=0.008。商业性农业服务人员伤害发生率最高(12.94%),尤其是建筑维修和生产物资运输工种,伤害发生率分别为16.80%和15.59%,高于其他工种(χ 2=167.30,P=0.000);在各种道路和田间伤害发生比例大,分别占28.79%和28.08%,且以农业生产活动和物资运输活动为高,分别占38.00%和27.97%;以6-8 月伤害发生率最高(47.43%)。伤害外在原因前三位类型依次是器械伤(31.42%)、运输伤(24.13%)和跌落伤(20.19%);损伤部位以四肢伤居多(56.39%);意外自伤占76.82%,意外他伤占11.47%;以轻、中度损伤为主,分别占60.22%和30.34%。因伤死亡7 人,病死率为0.84%,死亡专率为58.81/10 万;因伤致残72 人,病残率为6.05‰。伤害自身原因中以“不知道如何防护”比例最高(29.87%),其中女性高达45.41%,“过度疲劳”和“处置不当”分别列第二、三位,而男性第二位的是“处置不当”。自然环境因素中以“气温高、湿度大、风速低”居多(14.93%),其次是“坡道、急转弯、交叉路口缺乏标志,无准备”(12.19%)、“天黑光线差”(10.87%)、“雨雪路滑”(10.51%)和“儿童无人监护”(10.27%)等。损伤后以门诊处置居多(50.18%),门诊费用182.76 元[第50 百分位(P50)];住院率为27.72%,住院天数7.57 d(P50),住院费用2840.00 元(P50),因伤休息5.9 d(P50),间接损失233.16 元(P50)。结论<\b>调查地区农业伤害发生率高且危害严重,应开展相关行为干预及生产技能培训,注意降低劳动强度,改善环境状况和特殊工种的防护。
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the prevalence and risk factors of agricultural activities related injuries among rural residents in Shandong province.Methods A retrospective investigation was conducted among agricultural profession-related workers in 20 villages with multistage cluster sampling method in Shandong province. Four times face-to-face interview were conducted by trained interviewers,including 32 students and local medical personnel under constructed questionnaires. Accidental injuries occurred in the activities or in the agricultural profession-related jobs were recorded,from May 1st 2009 to April 30st 2010. Data was input and analyzed by SPSS 13.0 statistical software.Results A total of 837 cases reported at least 1 job-related injury out of the 11 902 people who had been surveyed in one year. The crude incidence rate was 7.03% and the standardized incidence rate was 7.36%,higher in males(9.01%)than in females(4.10%),χ2=105.53,P=0.000. Children and adolescents(≤14 aged)had the higher incidence rate(9.50%),χ 2=9.70,P=0.008. People working in the area of commercial service related to agricultural products had the highest incidence rate(12.94%). In particular,those occupations that related to agricultural construction or materials appeared to have had higher incidence rates as 16.80% and 15.59% respectively,than other kinds of jobs(χ2=167.30,P=0.000). There were higher proportion of injuries occurred in the roads (28.79%),in the fields(28.08%)during labor work(38.00%)transportation(27.97%),respectively. The seasonality of agricultural injures mostly occurred between June and August,accounted for 47.43% . Major external causes related to injuries were instruments or tools(31.42%)being used, transportation(24.13%)and falls(20.19%). Wounds on limbs took the majority(56.39%). The accidental self-inflicted injury occupied 76.82%,while accidents to passive injuries occupied 11.47%, other kinds accounted for 11.71%. Most of the accidents caused mild or moderate damage,accounted for 60.22% and 30.34% respectively. 7 cases died of injuries,with the fatality rate as 0.84% and the mortality rate was 58.81 per one hundred thousand. 72 cases ended up in disability caused by injuries, with the morbidity rate as 6.05 per thousand. Answers to the major internal causes of injuries appeared to be:“did not know how to protect oneself”(29.87%) with females (45.41%) in particular, followed by“over fatigue”and“inappropriate treatment”which took the 2nd place in males. Major natural environmental factors of injuries would relate to“high air temperature and humidity but lower wind velocity”(14.93%),“unclear signs on the country road”(12.19%),“the sky was cloudy or dark” (10.87%),“slippery road caused by rain or snow”(10.51%),“kids were unintended”(10.27%)etc. Most of the wounded received treatment clinically(50.18%),with the percentile(P50)of medical cost as 182.76 RMB(Yuan). The proportion of inpatient was 27.72% and with percentile of time as P50= 7.57 day and cost as P50=2840.00 RMB Yuan. The wounded had a rest of P50=5.9 days,with an indirect cost as P50=233.16 RMB Yuan.Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the incidence of agricultural profession-related injuries was high, with serious harm. Behavioral intervention and awareness of injuries should be enhanced,together with the improvement of environmental condition.
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