文章摘要
张蕾,姜桂平,陈功.中国0?4岁儿童残疾发生现状:家庭环境的支持效应分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2012,33(2):160-163
中国0?4岁儿童残疾发生现状:家庭环境的支持效应分析
Risks related to disability on children aged 0-4 in China:analysis on the supporting effects from family
收稿日期:2011-09-14  出版日期:2014-09-10
DOI:
中文关键词: 残疾;家庭环境;儿童;支持效应
英文关键词: Disability;Family environment; Children;Supporting effects
基金项目:国家社会科学基金(09CRK007)
作者单位E-mail
张蕾 北京大学人口研究所(北京大学)中国残疾人事业发展研究, 北京 100871 zhang.lei@pku.edu.cn 
姜桂平 北京大学人口研究所(北京大学)中国残疾人事业发展研究, 北京 100871  
陈功 北京大学人口研究所(北京大学)中国残疾人事业发展研究, 北京 100871  
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中文摘要:
      目的 探讨家庭环境(家庭经济条件、父母社会经济角色)对低龄儿童罹患残疾的关联效应。方法 从2006年第二次全国残疾人抽样调查原始数据库中截取0~4周岁儿童及其父母的信息形成新样本, 总量为73394个。应用SPSS16.0软件, 率或构成比的比较用X2检验, 多因素分析用binarylogistic回归模型。结果 残疾发生的风险在3岁前随着年龄的增长不断升高(0~4岁Ofl值分别为0.47、0.66、0.90、1.56和1.47), 与描述残疾现患水平的“累积”特性密切相关;男童的残疾发生风险要高于女童(0R=0.82);家庭收入越低子女残疾的发生风险则越高(家庭人均收人≤683元, 0?=1.80;彡7255元, 0fi=0.34);在父母同居的家庭中子女残疾发生风险与父母文化程度显著关联, 如是否识字(父P<0.001, OR=2.18;母P=0.02, 0R=1.82)和是否上过小学(父P=0.05, OR=1.56);父亲就业状况与子女残疾的发生关联不显著, 而与母亲的就业状况则显著关联(P=0.02, OR=1.19)。单因素分析显示, 母亲是否为初婚、再婚均与子女残疾发生显著关联, 而与父亲是否再婚的关联显著, 初婚则不显著。但在多因素分析中, 无论父亲还是母亲的婚姻经历均不再显著。结论 家庭环境是影响低龄儿童残疾的直接因素。
英文摘要:
      Objective This study aimed to explore the correlated effects of family environment on children aged 0-4 who were suffered from disabilities. Economic conditions of the families and socio-economic status of the parents were also analyzed. Methods Based on the database from the National Sample Survey on Disability in 2006, a new database was intercepted with the information of children aged 0-4 and their parents. The total sample size was 73 394. Descriptive analysis and binary logistic regression were used to explore the effects related to family environment. Software used in statistical analysis was SPSS 16.0. Results The risks of disability started before the age of 3, and increased along with age(the odds ratios on children at 0 to 4 years old were 0.47, 0.66, 0.90, 1.56 and 1.47), which described the “cumulative” nature of prevalence levels of disability. The risk of disability among male children was higher than female(OR=0.82). The lower the per capita household income was, the higher the risks of disability of the children(OR≤683= 1.80; 0R684-944= 1.79; 0R945-2948= 1.23; OR2948-7254=0.71; 0R≥7255=0.34) appeared. When living together with parents under the same roof, the risk of disability was significantly correlated with their parents, schooling :literate vs. illiteracy(with father 0.001, OR=2.18 and mother P=0.02, 0R=1.82). Regarding the parents elementary school education, it appeared that only on father, the result was P=0.05, OR=l.56. Employment status of the father was not significantly correlated with children, s incidence of disability, while the mother, s employment status was significant(P=0.02, 0/?= 1.19). Data from the descriptive analysis showed that factors as first marriage and remarriage of the mother were significantly correlated to their children, s occurrence of disability while remarriage of the father was also a significant factor. However, in multivariate analysis, both father and mother, s marriage status were not significantly important. Conclusion Reducing the risk of disability was important on the health of children. Among younger children, the family environment appeared to have the direct impact on the occurrence of disability.
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