文章摘要
黄正京,王丽敏,张梅,邓茜,王志会,赵寅君,李镒冲,赵振平.中国2012年18~59岁就业流动人口吸烟状况分析[J].中华流行病学杂志,2014,35(11):1192-1197
中国2012年18~59岁就业流动人口吸烟状况分析
Smoking behavior among the Chinese employed floating population aged 18-59 in 2012
投稿时间:2014-09-04  
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2014.11.004
中文关键词: 烟草控制;流动人口;现在吸烟率;戒烟率;二手烟暴露
英文关键词: Tobacco control;Floating population;Prevalence of current smoking;Smoking cessation;Exposed to secondhand smoke
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
黄正京 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
王丽敏 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心 wlm65@126.com 
张梅 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
邓茜 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
王志会 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
赵寅君 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
李镒冲 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
赵振平 100050 北京, 中国疾病预防控制中心慢性非传染性疾病预防控制中心  
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中文摘要:
      目的 了解中国18~59岁就业流动人口吸烟状况,为制定其慢性非传染性疾病(慢性病)防控方案提供依据。方法 利用中国慢性病及其危险因素监测(2012)流动人口专题调查数据,并根据18~59岁就业流动人口分布状况选取170个调查县(区、团),按照6个职业分层,采用多阶段等额整群抽样方法,以面对面访谈方式收集该人群吸烟信息,并使用复杂抽样设计方法进行统计分析。结果 共纳入样本人群48 699人,现在吸烟率为32.5%(95%CI:32.0%~33.0%),其中男性(55.3%,95%CI:54.6%~56.0%)显著高于女性(1.9%,95%CI:1.7%~2.1%)(χ2=2.6,P=0.103 7);男性各年龄组现在吸烟率的差异无统计学意义(χ2=2.6,P=0.103 7),但随文化程度提高而有降低趋势(χ2=140.7,P<0.000 1),以建筑业人群现在吸烟率最高(58.6%,95%CI:57.3%~60.0%)。现在每日吸烟率为27.9%(95%CI:27.4%~28.4%),其中男性(47.8%,95%CI:47.1%~48.5%)显著高于女性(1.3%,95%CI:1.1%~1.4%)。现在吸烟者人均每日吸烟量为15.6(95%CI:15.5~15.8)支,其中男性为15.7(95%CI:15.6~15.9)支,女性为10.3(95%CI:9.3~11.3)支;男性现在吸烟者人均每日吸烟量呈随年龄增加而上升趋势(t=34.89,P<0.000 1)和随文化程度提高而降低趋势(t=-14.63,P<0.000 1),以建筑业人群人均每日吸烟量最高为18.2(95%CI:17.9~18.6)支。样本人群中每日吸烟者日均吸烟量≥20支者的比例为47.1%,男性(47.6%)明显高于女性(21.9%),并呈随年龄增加及文化程度降低而升高,且以建筑业人群最高(60.4%)。吸烟者戒烟率为10.3%(95%CI:9.7%~10.8%),其中男性为10.1%(95%CI:9.6%~10.7%),女性为14.8%(95%CI:11.1%~18.5%),且有随吸烟者年龄增加而上升趋势(χ2=118.9,P<0.000 1),不同文化程度和职业者戒烟率的差异均无统计学意义。戒烟者成功戒烟率为6.1%(95%CI:5.7%~6.5%),其中男性为6.1%(95%CI:5.7%~6.5%),女性为7.2%(95%CI:4.6%~9.8%),并呈随吸烟者年龄增加而升高趋势(χ2=269.0,P<0.000 1)。"二手烟"暴露者比例为68.7%(95%CI:68.1%~69.3%),其中男性(76.4%,95%CI:75.5%~77.3%)高于女性(64.0%,95%CI:63.2%~64.9%)。结论 中国18~59岁男性就业流动人口普遍存在吸烟行为,"二手烟"暴露比例较高,以建筑业流动人口最为突出。吸烟者戒烟率较低,且成功戒烟的比例更低。
英文摘要:
      Objective To understand the prevalence of cigarette smoking among employed floating population in China and to provide evidence for developing prevention and control measures targeted at cigarette smoking among them. Methods On the basis of the Disease Surveillance Points(DSPs) System and employed distribution among floating population,the China Non-communicable and Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance in 2012 sampled from 170 DSPs,multi-stage stratified equal-sized cluster sampling method was used and stratified by six occupational groups. Cigarette smoking related information among the employed floating population was collected by face-to-face interviews. The analytical method accounted for the complex sampling design. Results There were 48 699 subjects,aged 18-59 years old,eligible and included in this analysis among the surveyed employed floating population. Among them,the prevalence of current smoking was 32.5% (95%CI:32.0%-33.0%). A significantly higher percentage of men 55.3% (95%CI:54.6%-56.0%) relative to women 1.9%(95%CI:1.7%-2.1%) reported current smoking(χ2=2.6,P=0.103 7). Among men,differences in current smoking rates remained similar across age groups (χ2=2.6,P=0.103 7),but the current smoking rate tended to be lower with higher education (χ2=140.7,P<0.000 1). The current smoking rate in men was the highest (58.6%,95%CI:57.3%-60.0%) in the floating population working in the construction industry. The prevalent of daily cigarette smoking was 27.9% (95%CI:27.4%-28.4%),with a significantly higher proportion among men 47.8% (95%CI:47.1%-48.5%) than among women 1.3% (95%CI:1.1%-1.4%). Among daily smokers,the mean number of cigarettes smoked was 15.6(95%CI:15.5-15.8) per day (men:15.7 per day;women:10.3 per day). The number was higher in men 15.7(95%CI:15.6-15.9) than in women 10.3(95%CI:9.3-11.3). Among daily smoking men,the daily consumed cigarettes number increased with the age increased (t=34.89,P<0.000 1),whereas the daily consumed cigarettes number decreased with the increase of education level (t=-14.63,P<0.000 1). The daily consumed cigarettes number in men was the highest (18.2,95%CI:17.9-18.6) in the floating population working in the construction industry. There were 47.1% of the daily smokers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day in the floating population aged 18-59,with a higher percentage among men (47.6%) than women (21.9%). The percentage in men increased with age and education level and the heavy smoking rate was the highest in the construction industry (60.4%). Among current smokers,the percentage of attempting to quit was 10.3%(95%CI:9.7%-10.8%). A higher proportion of women 14.8%(95%CI:11.1%-18.5%),compared to men 10.1%(95%CI:9.6%-10.7%),reported attempting to quit. The rate of attempting to quit among current smokers increased with age. No significant difference in prevalence of attempting to quit by education level or occupation was seen. The percent of successfully quitting smoking was 6.1%(95%CI:5.7%-6.5%). The proportion was higher in women 7.2%(95%CI:4.6%-9.8%) than in men 6.1%(95%CI:5.7%-6.5%). The percentage of quitting smoking successfully increased with age(χ2=269.0,P<0.000 1). The percent of people who exposed to secondhand smoking was 68.7%(95%CI:68.1%-69.3%). The percent was higher among men 76.4% (95%CI:75.5%-77.3%) than in women 64.0%(95%CI:63.2%-64.9%). Conclusion Smoking was more common among men in the employed floating population aged 18-59 years old,especially in the construction industry. Low percent was seen among those who attempting to quit,and the ones who successfully quit were very few.
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