文章摘要
雷园婷,罗冬梅,张京舒,胡佩瑾,张冰,宋逸,马军.中国26个少数民族7~18岁学生生长迟缓比较研究[J].中华流行病学杂志,2019,40(3):335-340
中国26个少数民族7~18岁学生生长迟缓比较研究
Comparative study on growth retardation prevalence in students aged 7-18 years from 26 minority ethnic groups in China
投稿时间:2018-09-07  
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0254-6450.2019.03.015
中文关键词: 少数民族;成年身高;生长迟缓;学生
英文关键词: Minority ethnic group;Height;Growth retardation;Student
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(81302442)
作者单位E-mail
雷园婷 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
罗冬梅 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
张京舒 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
胡佩瑾 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
张冰 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
宋逸 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191 songyi@bjmu.edu.cn 
马军 北京大学儿童青少年卫生研究所 北京大学公共卫生学院 北京大学医学部 100191  
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中文摘要:
      目的 比较我国26个少数民族7~18岁学生生长迟缓现况,为促进少数民族学生生长潜力,提高少数民族学生健康水平提供参考依据。方法 选择2014年"全国学生体质与健康调研"中26个少数民族7~18岁学生,根据《学龄儿童青少年营养不良筛查标准》(WS/T 456-2014)判断生长迟缓,对各少数民族学生成年身高和生长迟缓现况进行比较。结果 2014年我国26个少数民族男生18岁身高为(168.3±6.8)cm,女生为(156.2±5.9)cm。26个少数民族男生合并生长迟缓率均为5.4%,女生合并生长迟缓率为5.1%。水族学生生长迟缓率最高(男生:24.5%,女生:23.0%),回族学生生长迟缓率最低(男生:0.1%,女生:0.3%)。男、女生生长迟缓率均超过平均水平的9个少数民族中,布依族男生、傈僳族女生和哈尼族女生在4个年龄组生长迟缓检出率差异无统计学意义,撒拉族学生生长迟缓集中在7~9岁年龄组,佤族等少数民族学生生长迟缓大多集中在较高年龄组。西南地区学生生长迟缓率最高(8.1%),明显高于华北地区(0.8%)学生(OR=10.6,95% CI:7.8~14.4)。7~17岁生长迟缓率与18岁身高呈显著负相关(男生:r=-0.811,P<0.001;女生:r=-0.715,P<0.001)。结论 2014年我国26个少数民族学生18岁平均身高民族间差异较大。总体而言,男生生长迟缓检出率前5位的民族分别为水族、佤族、布依族、瑶族和彝族,女生生长迟缓检出率前5位的民族分别为水族、瑶族、布依族、佤族和苗族。西南地区少数民族学生生长迟缓检出率明显高于其他地区。应当针对生长迟缓率较高的民族和地区进行营养干预和健康教育,以促进少数民族学生生长潜力。
英文摘要:
      Objective To compare the prevalence of growth retardation in students aged 7-18 years from 26 minority ethnic groups in China and provides reference evidence to promote the growth and improve the health status of students in minority ethnic groups. Methods The body height data of students aged 7-18 years in 26 minority ethnic groups in 2014 Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health were used for the analysis and comparison. Growth retardation was defined according to the school-aged child and adolescent malnutrition screening standard (WS/T 456-2014). Results In 2014, the average body heights of school boys and school girls aged 18 years in 26 ethnic minority groups were (168.3±6.8) cm and (156.2±5.9) cm respectively. The overall growth retardation prevalence rate of school boys and school girls in 26 ethnic groups were 5.4% and 5.1%, respectively. The growth retardation prevalence rate was highest in students of Shui ethnic group (24.5% for boys and 23.0% for girls), and lowest in students of Hui ethnic group (0.1% for boys and 0.3% for girls). The growth retardation prevalence rates in 9 ethnic minority groups were higher than the average level, in these 9 ethnic groups, the differences in prevalence rates of boys of Buyi ethnic group, girls of Lisu ethnic group and girls of Hani ethnic group had no significance among four age groups. Growth retardation in students of Sala ethnic group was mainly observed in age group 7-9 years, but in others ethnic group, for example, Wa ethnic, it was mainly observed in older age group. The students in minority ethnic groups in southwestern China had the highest growth retardation prevalence rate (8.1%), significantly higher than that in northern China (0.8%) (OR=10.6, 95% CI:7.8-14.4). The overall growth retardation prevalence rate between 7 and 17 years old was negatively correlated with the body height of 18 years old (boys:r=-0.811, P<0.001; girls:r=-0.715, P<0.001). Conclusions In 2014, the differences in body height among students aged 18 years in 26 minority ethnic groups in China were significant. In general, the first five minority ethnic groups with high detection rate of growth retardation in boys were Shui, Wa, Buyi, Yao and Yi, and the five minority ethnic groups with high detection rate of growth retardation in girls were Shui, Yao, Buyi, Wa and Miao. The detection rate of growth retardation was highest in students of minority ethnic groups in southwestern China. Nutritional interventions and healthy education should be carried out in minority ethnic groups and areas with high growth retardation prevalence rate to promote the growth of the students.
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