文章摘要
颜崇淮,吴胜虎,沈晓明,章依文,江帆,殷洁敏,周建德,何稼敏,敖黎明,章煜,李纫秋.上海市推广使用无铅汽油对儿童血铅水平影响的追踪调查[J].中华流行病学杂志,2002,23(3):172-174
上海市推广使用无铅汽油对儿童血铅水平影响的追踪调查
The trends of changes in children's blood lead levels since the introduction of lead free gasoline in Shanghai
收稿日期:2001-12-10  出版日期:2014-09-17
DOI:
中文关键词: 铅中毒  血铅  儿童  汽油
英文关键词: Lead poisoning  Blood lead level  Children  Gasoline
基金项目:
作者单位
颜崇淮 上海第二医科大学附属新华医院 200092 
吴胜虎 上海第二医科大学附属新华医院 200092 
沈晓明 上海市儿科医学研究所 
章依文 上海第二医科大学附属新华医院 200092 
江帆 上海第二医科大学附属新华医院 200092 
殷洁敏 上海市儿科医学研究所 
周建德 上海市儿科医学研究所 
何稼敏 上海第二医科大学儿童铅中毒防治研究中心 
敖黎明 上海第二医科大学儿童铅中毒防治研究中心 
章煜 上海第二医科大学儿童铅中毒防治研究中心 
李纫秋 上海第二医科大学儿童铅中毒防治研究中心 
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中文摘要:
      目的 研究推广使用无铅汽油前后儿童血铅水平的动态变化规律. 方法 1997年8~9月间, 在上海市5个区县30所托幼机构1 969名1~6岁儿童进行了血铅水平抽样调查, 然后于1998年4~6月及1999年8~9月对相应人群进行血铅水平两次追踪调查. 调查采用末梢血纸片法血铅测定方法. 结果 上海市儿童血铅水平几何均数在推广无铅汽油前为83μg/L, 推广无铅汽油后的1998年为80μg/L, 1999年为76μg/L, 与前一年相比血铅水平的变化均有显著意义(t值分别为2. 2190、4. 4576, P值分别小于0. 05和0. 01);超过目前国际公认的儿童铅中毒诊断标准(100μg/L)的比例也由使用无铅汽油前的37. 8%下降到1999年的24. 8%, 差异有非常显著性(u =8. 8247, P<0. 01). 儿童血铅水平几何均数下降幅度徐汇区为10μg/L、静安区11μg/L、杨浦区6μg/L、嘉定区4μg/L、崇明县2μg/L. 结论 推广使用无铅汽油可降低儿童的血铅水平.
英文摘要:
      Objective To describe trends of changes in blood lead levels in children aged 1 6 years during the time period before and after introducing lead free gasoline in Shanghai 1997 and 1999. Methods Blood lead levels of 1 969 children aged 1 6 years were determined by a sampling survey in five districts of Shanghai in August and September, 1997. Blood lead levels of the same population were re determined by the same method from April to June in 1998 and from August to September in 1999. Filter paper blood lead test was carried out monthly using the filter paper blood lead proficiency testing program of Centers for Disease Control in the United States. The Results from blood lead samples were under acceptable ranges during the study. Results The geometric means of blood lead levels were 83 μg/L in 1997, 80 μg/L in 1998 and 76 μg/L in 1999, respectively. The prevalence rates of childhood lead poisoning (blood lead level was equal or more than 100 μg/L) were 37. 8 % in 1997, 25. 7 % in 1998 and 24. 8 % in 1999. The amounts of decrease on average blood lead levels in the five districts between 1997 and 1999 were 10 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 6 μg/L, 4 μg/L and 2 μg/L, respectively. Conclusion Lead poisoning is a preventable disease. The average levels of lead in young children in Shanghai decreased significantly after the introduction of lead free gasoline to Shanghai. Lead emissions from vehicles running on leaded gasoline was one of the important contributors to increase the children's blood lead levels in Shanghai. Lead poisoning is not evenly distributed among children in Shanghai, resulting in the different levels of decline.
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