文章摘要
郑英杰,刘海燕,于波,胡安群,董遥,郭阳.观察与实验:因果视角[J].中华流行病学杂志,2021,42(10):1863-1870
观察与实验:因果视角
Observation and experiment: a causal perspective
收稿日期:2020-12-24  出版日期:2021-10-23
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20201224-01437
中文关键词: 因果思维;观察;实验
英文关键词: Causal thinking;Observation;Experiment
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(81373065,81773490)
作者单位E-mail
郑英杰 复旦大学公共卫生学院流行病学教研室/国家卫生健康委员会卫生技术评估重点实验室(复旦大学)/复旦大学公共卫生学院公共卫生安全教育部重点实验室, 上海 200032 yjzheng@fudan.edu.cn 
刘海燕 安徽省安庆市立医院 246003  
于波 北京大学深圳医院 518036  
胡安群 安徽省安庆市立医院 246003  
董遥 复旦大学公共卫生学院流行病学教研室/国家卫生健康委员会卫生技术评估重点实验室(复旦大学)/复旦大学公共卫生学院公共卫生安全教育部重点实验室, 上海 200032  
郭阳 北京大学深圳医院 518036  
摘要点击次数: 1185
全文下载次数: 381
中文摘要:
      观察和实验及其设计、相关的概念和内涵仍然模糊,影响着研究设计的正确认识及因果推断有效性的判断。本文借用物理学的相变概念,结合因果思维与因果图,首先建立了事物的属性及其状态、事件与现象之间的关系;接着识别了两种现象获取方式——人为观察和人为实验之间相反的因果结构,及其与暴露的干预、分配在因果推断研究中受各自的因果机制影响;最后,识别了干预系因果概念,是自然因果律基础上联系已知的现象和/或需经测量而获得的现象之间的核心纽带;基于此分析了研究设计二分类的策略,以干预法和非干预法的分类更为清晰。观察和实验提供了所有科学知识的基础,应是内涵统一的概念。基于因果律及其测量过程可能是实现研究设计精准分类的最佳选项之一,值得深入研究。
英文摘要:
      Observation and experiment and their related connotations and concepts remain vague, which affects the correct understanding of research design and the judgment of the validity of causal inference. This article borrows the concept of phase transition in physics, combines causal thinking and causal diagrams, firstly establishes the relationships among the attribute, state, event, and phenomenon, and then identifies two ways with the opposite causal structures to acquire phenomena-human observations and human manipulated experiments. In causal inference, the ways mentioned above, intervention and assignment of exposure are affected by their own causal mechanisms. Finally, intervention is a causal concept, a core link among known phenomena, unknown phenomena available for measurement, and natural causality. Based on this, the two strategies in classifying research design are analyzed, and intervention method and non-intervention method are proposed, as is comprehensive and concise. Observations and experiments provide the basis for all scientific knowledge and should be viewed as concepts with a unified connotation. The accurate classification of research designs based on the law of causality and measurement process may be one of the best options worthy of in-depth study.
查看全文   Html全文     查看/发表评论  下载PDF阅读器
关闭