文章摘要
舒黄芳,王可艺,刘社兰,张萌,宋铁.尼帕病毒病预防与控制研究进展[J].中华流行病学杂志,2022,43(2):286-291
尼帕病毒病预防与控制研究进展
Progress in prevention and control of Nipah virus disease
收稿日期:2021-07-06  出版日期:2022-02-16
DOI:10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20210706-00529
中文关键词: 尼帕病毒  尼帕病毒病  果蝠  流行病学  暴发  实验室诊断
英文关键词: Nipah virus  Nipah virus disease  Fruit bats  Epidemiology  Outbreak  Laboratory diagnosis
基金项目:广东省重点研发领域研发计划(2019B111103001);浙江省卫生高层次创新人才培养工程
作者单位E-mail
舒黄芳 广东药科大学公共卫生学院, 广州 510315  
王可艺 广东药科大学公共卫生学院, 广州 510315  
刘社兰 浙江省疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所, 杭州 310051  
张萌 广东省疾病预防控制中心传染病预防控制所, 广州 511430  
宋铁 广东省疾病预防控制中心, 广州 511430 fellst@vip.sina.com 
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中文摘要:
      尼帕病毒病(NVD)是一种新发现的人兽共患病,致死率达40%~75%,严重威胁人类健康和畜牧业的发展,已成为近20多年来国际高度关注的新发传染病之一。尼帕病毒(NiV)是NVD病原体,其自然宿主是狐蝠科的果蝠。NiV可致人和动物感染,临床谱广泛,包括无症状感染、急性呼吸道感染、致命性脑炎甚至死亡。NiV自1999年首次在马来西亚被发现以来,主要在东南亚和南亚地区流行。NiV主要通过蝙蝠-猪-人、被污染的食物传播给人类造成人际传播。目前,尚无NVD特异性治疗药物和疫苗。我国目前没有NVD病例报道,但我国与NVD主要流行国家经济贸易及人员往来频繁,并且已在我国相关蝙蝠体内也检测到了NiV抗体,我国存在NVD输入与本地流行潜在风险。本文围绕NVD病原学、流行病学、临床表现和实验室诊断等预防控制的研究进展进行系统综述,帮助相关工作人员较为全面和系统地了解NVD。
英文摘要:
      Nipah virus disease (NVD) is a newly emerged zoonosis with a case fatality rate of 40%-75%. NVD is a severe threat to human health and the development of livestock farming. NVD has become one of the emerging infectious diseases with great concern globally during more than 20 years. Nipah virus (NiV) is a pathogen for NVD, the natural host of which is Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family. The clinical spectrum of NiV infection is broad, including asymptomatic infection, acute respiratory infection, fatal encephalitis, and even death. Since NiV was first identified in Malaysia in 1999, it has been prevalent mainly in Southeast Asia and South Asia. NiV is primarily transmitted to humans through bat-pig-human, contaminated food. Currently, there are no specific therapeutic drugs and vaccines for NVD. Although there are no cases of NVD reported in China, which has close personnel and trade exchanges with major NVD-endemic countries, and NiV antibody has also been detected in relevant bats. There is a potential risk of importing NVD and domestic outbreaks in the future in this country. This paper provides a systematic review of the research progress in the prevention and control of NVD etiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and laboratory diagnosis to help relevant staff to understand NVD more comprehensively and systematically.
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